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National Reach

National Reach

Radio Spot Ad

Setup Process

Design + Production

Setup Cost

$1,000-$3,000

Cost of Media

$65-$200+ depending on station

Cost to Continue

Cost of ad campaign

Demographic Served

Anyone listening to the radio

National TV Ad Spot Design + Production

$50,000-$750,000

$35,000 to $2 million per 30
second spot

Cost of media + agency hourly rate Anyone watching TV

National Magazine

Design

$1,500-$20,000

$3,000-$25,000 per full-page ad
per issue

Cost of media + agency hourly rate Anyone reading the magazine

National Newspaper
Ad

Design

$1,500-$20,000

~$28,000 per half-page ad per
day

Cost of media + additional design in
future
Anyone reading the newspaper

Direct Mail

Design

$1,500-$15,000

~$2.20 per addressee

People on your direct mail company’s
Design, publishing + postage costs mailing list

Telemarketing

Script Writing

$1,000-$4,000

$20-$60 per hour per outbound
caller

$20-$60/hour

People on your telemarketing
company’s call list

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With your financial calculator

With your financial calculator, enter the following:

 

N = 12; I/YR = YTM = 9%; PMT = 0.08 ´ 1,000 = 80; FV = 1000; PV = VB = ?

PV = $928.39.

 

Alternatively,

 

VB  = $80((1- 1/1.0912)/0.09) + $1,000(1/1.0912)

= $928.39

 

5-2       With your financial calculator, enter the following:

 

N = 12; PV = -850; PMT = 0.10 ´ 1,000 = 100; FV = 1000; I/YR = YTM = ?

YTM = 12.48%.

5-6       r* = 3%; IP = 3%; rT-2 = 6.3%; MRP2 = ?

 

rT-2 = r* + IP + MRP = 6.3%

rT-2 = 3% + 3% + MRP = 6.3%

MRP = 0.3%.

 

5-7       The problem asks you to find the price of a bond, given the following facts:

 

N = 16; I/YR = 8.5/2 = 4.25; PMT = 50; FV = 1000.

 

With a financial calculator, solve for PV = $1,085.80

5-13     The problem asks you to solve for the YTM, given the following facts:

 

N = 5, PMT = 80, and FV = 1000.  In order to solve for I/YR we need PV.

 

However, you are also given that the current yield is equal to 8.21%. Given this information, we can find PV.

 

Current yield     = Annual interest/Current price

0.0821     = $80/PV

PV     = $80/0.0821 = $974.42.

 

Now, solve for the YTM with a financial calculator:

 

N = 5, PV = -974.42, PMT = 80, and FV = 1000.  Solve for I/YR = YTM = 8.65%.

6-6       According to the Security Market Line (SML) equation, an increase in beta will increase a company’s expected return by an amount equal to the market risk premium times the change in beta.  For example, assume that the risk-free rate is 6 percent, and the market risk premium is 5 percent.  If the company’s beta doubles from 0.8 to 1.6 its expected return increases from 10 percent to 14 percent.  Therefore, in general, a company’s expected return will not double when its beta doubles.

6-1                   Investment                    Beta

$35,000                      0.8

 40,000                      1.4

Total    $75,000

 

($35,000/$75,000)(0.8) + ($40,000/$75,000)(1.4) = 1.12.

 

6-2       rRF = 6%; rM = 13%; b = 0.7; rs = ?

 

rs    = rRF + (rM – rRF)b

= 6% + (13% – 6%)0.7

= 10.9%.

 

 

6-7       a.   ri = rRF + (rM – rRF)bi = 9% + (14% – 9%)1.3 = 15.5%.

 

b.   1.   rRF increases to 10%:

 

rM increases by 1 percentage point, from 14% to 15%.

 

ri = rRF + (rM – rRF)bi = 10% + (15% – 10%)1.3 = 16.5%.

 

2.   rRF decreases to 8%:

 

rM decreases by 1%, from 14% to 13%.

 

ri = rRF + (rM – rRF)bi = 8% + (13% – 8%)1.3 = 14.5%.

 

c.   1.   rM increases to 16%:

 

ri = rRF + (rM – rRF)bi = 9% + (16% – 9%)1.3 = 18.1%.

 

2.   rM decreases to 13%:

 

ri = rRF + (rM – rRF)bi = 9% + (13% – 9%)1.3 = 14.2%.

 

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Video gaming has come

Gaming and how it’s grown over time

                Video gaming has come a long way from what it once used to be, starting with Pong revolutionizing how people play games.  Pong was a simple game with a knob as the controller and you would easily bounce the square back and forth across the screen.  Then there was Atari, which was released in 1977, they had the basic simples games like motocross, boxing etc. Then the ever popular (NES) Nintendo Entertainment System was unveiled in 1985.  Was Nintendo’s first system it was an 8-bit colored gaming system. The NES was and is still a popular gaming system, among any video gamer. They had some of the most popular and widely known video games, such as Mario Bros, Bomber man, Castlevania, Donkey Kong, Ninja Gaiden and Tetris to name a few. Sega joins the gaming wars in 1989 with the Sega Genesis. They helped bring Sonic to life as one of the most iconic characters coming from Sega. Starting out the 90’s, 5-6 years after NES was released, (SNES) Super Nintendo Entertainment System came out around 1990-1991. These video game systems helped start the revolution of what video gaming is today.

Mid-late 90’s Video gaming

                The main two gaming systems that came out were the Nintendo 64 and Sony’s Playstation. The play station came out a year before the N64 did, although they both would go on to be known for their own system specific games. Such as Mario, Mario Kart, Golden eye, Wave Runner, F-Zero, and Super Smash Bros. Whereas play stations was Crash Bandicoot, Final Fantasy, Tomb Raider, and Spyro. Sony was a step ahead of the game with using discs for the games, whereas Nintendo was still using a cartridge based system.  Both systems were widely successful. Sony and Nintendo were the biggest rivals of the 90’s.

The new Millennium

                Sony is again a year ahead of the game by releasing Sony’s Playstation 2 in 2000, a year later Nintendo comes out with the GameCube and out of surprise Microsoft unveils the Xbox. The playstation 2 had a slew of popular titles, such as Grand Theft Auto, God of War, Killzone2, and Ratchet and Clank. Nintendo’s GameCube had come out with Mario Kart: Double Dash, Super Mario Sunshine, and Super Smash Bros. Melee. Microsoft’s Xbox had titles that went on to be some of the most popular to date such as Halo, Tom Clancy’s Ghost Recon, Doom 3, Splinter Cell and they also had Grand Theft Auto.  By this point in time, all game systems are using discs. Although Nintendo went with using a disc for GameCube, there’s was a lot smaller than your average disc.

 

Mid-Late 2000’s

                In 2005 Microsoft gets a head start with their next-gen console, the Xbox360.  Microsoft made a big impression with the original Xbox and had a comeback with the Xbox360. Although, There biggest downfall was the Red Ring of Death. For those lucky people that bought the first generation of the Xbox360.Although the Red Ring of Death didn’t kill the Xbox360, but it did hurt Microsoft. In 2006 Sony came back with a vengeance against the Xbox360, with their PS3. The main selling point of the PS3 compared to 360, was Blu-Ray and still is one key advantage over the 360. Microsoft came out with a new and improved Xbox360, that’s much quieter, has built in wifi and is all touch buttons. Nintendo still had something up there sleeve to try and rival the now two big competitors of Sony and Microsoft. Nintendo came out with the Wii. The Wii was a motion based gaming system and was directed more towards kids and family friendly games. The Nintendo Wii was a big hit, with family and little kids. It was a gaming system that was supposed to help get people up off the couch and moving around in the living room, trying to stay active. Although a lot of people figured out you can just sit and flick the controller, instead of trying to actually implement the actions of bowling, golfing etc.

 

Motion Control

                Ever since Nintendo came out with the Nintendo Wii, everyone has been coming up with implementing some sort of motion control in to their game system.  The Xbox360 know has the Kinect, and the PS3 has the Playstation Move. The Playstation move still uses controllers/wands, but there selection of games that have “Move” capabilities appeals to a much more mature audience. Where the Kinect games at launch were more kid friendly, but it doesn’t have any controllers, your body is the controller. Microsoft has a lineup of games that are going to be Kinect enabled and will be more appealing to their mature audience. Nintendo comes up with new and great ideas, but doesn’t always appeal to the broadest of gamers. They are more focused on being the kid friendly gaming system. The Move has a gun add on, that helps bring more of the realism to motion gaming. One of the biggest titles for the PS3 is Killzone 3, which is Move enabled. It is incredible to look at just how far technology has come from the time of simple Pong, where it was just a console with a knob and sliding a square up and down bouncing another square back and forth. To our next gen consoles, which all have wireless controllers, some sort of online play and some sort of motion control technology.

Online game play

                Online gaming has been such a huge success, for console gamers. Xbox live is one of Microsoft’s biggest competitive point in the competition in game companies.  Xbox live has a vast amount of freedom to their Gold subscribers.  Free demos, arcade games trailers, latest up dates, free music, and ESPN.  Xbox live does play better and seems to be more secure and has had fewer problems than their main rival, Sony’s Playstation.

Sony has around 70-100 million subscribers for the Playstation Network. The main difference between Xbox live and the PSN is that you do not have to pay to play online and receive demos, themes, and some videos. Although if you want to purchase things at a reduced price, along with free music, Hulu Plus, premium themes and demos. Then Playstation Plus is your choice. Whereas Xbox live has around 30-50+ million. Xbox live, has Silver and Gold subscribers. Xbox Silver is offline and only able to have the basic of features. Xbox Gold has all the features you’d want.

Online gaming beyond the consoles

                Online gaming has really changed and expanded far beyond, just the consoles. Online gaming has taken over a vast chunk of the internet. World of Warcraft, Counter Strike, Call of Duty series, MMORPG (Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game), and RTS (Real Time Strategy). Those are some of the most popular computer games in the online gaming community. Online gaming is a way to help bring people together. There have actually been a few people that have gotten married over World of Warcraft.  Online gaming has brought people from all around the world to compete for big cash prizes.

Online gaming is now about being very social and are all over mobile devices and social sites, such as Facebook and Google +. Facebook has a huge variety of games to be able to involve your friends.  Farmville, Mafia Wars, and Cafe World are among the vast majority of online social games. Sims is one of the most popular games that finally joined with Facebook. Sims is an MMORPG only set in a more modern set of pace, living your life as one of the Sims characters. Social games are more about working and trying to involve your friends in the game and achieving certain objectives.  The Playstation home is a MMOSG. The Home is pretty much Sony’s version of Second Life, only on the PSN instead. The Playstation Home lets your create your own character and really makes each other stand out from one another.  You also have your own apartment that you can customize to your liking. Online gaming has been a great successor in the market for companies and brings in a vast amount of money.

Online Gaming has gone Mobile

                Online gaming has become very popular in Smartphone’s. The iPhone has Game center and Android and iPhone have another form of online gaming company called Open Feint. A lot of premium games, such as Infinity Blade, Angry Birds, Tiny Wings, and Need for Speed. These games let people play together or against each other, whether it’s one on one or against a few other online players. The online gaming also has Achievements points, just like Xbox Live and Playstations Trophy awards. Ever since Smartphone’s became a huge success mobile gaming has taken a turn for the better. Nintendo and Sony has stiff competition against Apple and Android, due to the massive amount of games available for both smart phone’s.

 

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What are some examples

How do you determine the difference between client needs and desires?

 

What are some examples that demonstrate this difference?

John Powers:

Oh YES a clients needs could easily be prohibited to your design process. For example if a client needs their logo built in a certain way (which a logo I think really is a need) and you created the logo but they want if re-done then your design process is all messed up by having to go back and edit something that you have moved on from.

 

I would have to agree with John on this one, if you are working on making a logo to work with your website and have it all flow together with the same style of theme and then  the client comes back and says they want it done a different way or something, that can completely screw up what you had in mind. Either would have to start all over or hopefully just start all over on making or changing the colors or something of your logo.

 

Mark Long

class
if you client has know idea bout what they want what questions would you ask to get the information you need from the client that would help your design process

 

I would try to have the client give as much detail as possible and have them search for a few sites and have them show me and give me some sort of general idea of how they want the layout and look of the site they are wanting. Also I would ask “what kind of logo are they wanting, are they wanting one that’s just words with a little design around it or are they wanting a character or what?”

Why bother doing any research for a website that you’re building?

 

Does it help or hinder the creative design process to get closer to the subject matter?  Why or why not?
so you have a client with a product how do you start your research process?

I would research and look at different companies/websites and see how they are going about marketing there products and what they are doing to sell them. I would also look at the layout and color scheme of those company websites, to try and get a better idea/feel of the certain product.

 

can to much research on a product limit your design concept?

I guess it depends on the product, you are working with, but for the most part I would probably say no. For the simple fact, that having too much information on a product for a client is never a bad thing, you just need to make sure that after finding all of the facts etc, that you don’t become narrow minded about ways things should look now, just because you know a whole about that particular product.

 

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This paper touches base

History of Multimedia

                This paper touches base on all parts of multimedia, most of the paper touches on the past and present of multimedia. There are all types of multimedia, from audio, video, pictures, to the web.  All those things have come a long way from what they once used to be. Audio has come a long way from the old record player and 8 track players. Know we have mp3 players and satellite radio. Also we have digital downloads for our music, and audio books. One thing in the audio entertainment industry that hasn’t changed much is going to concerts. I mean concerts have changed, because know there might be laser light shows, smoke/fog, fireworks etc. The thing that hasn’t changed is even with all the new technology that is out there, people still go to see their favorite artist. That is one thing that has not and probably will never change, unless they make holograms of the artists and they can play from one location and be able to project that hologram to say the sandstone amphitheater, kind of like the holograms they have on Star Wars.

Video has come a long way from the old black and white TV with just a few channels, to being able to connect your computer to your TV and using it as a big computer monitor. Also you can stream movies from the internet or computer straight to your TV. Know you can even stream and watch some TV shows on your cell phone. Also on news stations, they have motion backgrounds. Like if you notice the backgrounds that start at the beginning of the news stations, also like on ESPN. Motion backgrounds has changed some of the way news stations introduce there show to the public.

Pictures has changed so much from the way you can implement pictures on the internet, videos, Face book and from cell phone to cell phone with the click of a button. Pictures have changed from back in the early 1900’s, where you had a huge camera and had to hold a light bulb to take certain pictures, that were black in white. To know you have cameras that are small enough to be on a cell phone, that can take amazing quality pictures. For instance, on the I phone they have HDR and retina display, and it can compare to an 8-12 megapixel camera. Also you can take your pictures and be able to send them to your Face book or to your friends and be able to edit your pictures  right on your cell phone.

The web/computer has drastically changed from the late 1900’s to know. The old computer used to be massive, about the size of an entire room. Know we have computers that you can easily carry with you from place to place. Also your Smartphone’s are pretty much a small computer in your hands. If you think about it, you can search the web, watch videos, transfer files to and from your smart phone, edit video and photos.  The internet has changed from the very basic websites, to having interactive sites and being able to communicate with other people across the world with the click of a button. Also Windows/Bill Gates and Mac/ Apple/ Steve Jobs have changed the revolution of computers and technology.

References

http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/HistoryPt3.htm

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/cameras.html

http://www.tvhistory.tv/History%20of%20TV.htm

http://www.high-techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet

http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html

http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history1.shtml

I also used my own basic knowledge on history of certain multimedia.

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Gain attention

Gagne’s Nine Events

                Gain attention: To gain people’s attention, I might have some footage of vehicles, mudding or of my friends and I taking mud,  etc, and throwing it all over my car. To show people a dirty car, then start to talk about what to do with a dirty car, and what you can do to get a dirty car, clean. I will also have some before and after pictures of the car as well.

Objectives: The main objectives are to know how to clean and take care of your car. Depending on how dirty your car is, depends on what products and how much you of those certain cleaning products you will need to use on your vehicle. Also when washing the car, it would be best if you had a sprayer nozzle on your hose, so it will be a little easier to wash your car.

Prior knowledge: My main audience should know how to wash a car to start out on the basics of washing a car. Also using Eagle One products, or Meguiars. Also showing the audience which products to use on a certain part of the car, and how you should use the products.  Since I will be using more than just soap, sponge, and water to wash a car. It will be good to show the audience what products and how to use them. Some of the products are, Nanowax, Rim and Tire cleaner, glass windshield cleaner, chrome polisher, also show the use of the microfiber towels, and why they are a good choice to use as well.

        Present the content: I will mainly have video footage for my tutorial, along with some graphics and maybe some music as well. Also for the products I don’t have, I will have graphics show up on the video, along with some text saying what it is. If I can find some instructional graphics that show how to wash a car or something along the lines, so that way the learner, can not only see the graphic, but will see me washing the car and doing what the informational graphic shows and tells you how to wash your car.

learning guidance: I could show some examples of my friends car of how your vehicle should look like when it is all clean and shiny. I could show some studies that taking care of your car, by waxing and washing your car proves to help keep rust and grime and other things off of your car, and the main one is rust. Rust can cause a lot of problems and a lot of money to fix as well. Rust is the last thing anybody wants to mess with.

                Elicit performance: In the video I will show probably a couple different times to make sure that the people understand how they should be washing their car and that they are washing their car the right way. Making sure the learner is washing their car the right way is what part of my tutorial is about,  if the learner is going about the wrong way of cleaning their car, then obviously I didn’t do something right.  Repetition is something that is always a good way to learn and repetition is something that helps people remember.

                Provide feedback: If I had the tutorial setup for a website, I would have a place underneath for comments and feedback for anyone who might of liked the tutorial or wanted to have something improved in the tutorial. If I had it on a DVD to pass around, I would have a link setup to go to a website and have them provide feedback for the tutorial.

        Assess performance: After the tutorial, I would maybe have setup in PowerPoint a quiz, asking a few different questions. Asking a few certain questions like, when you are washing your car. What way should you move your hand with a sponge? Clockwise, Counterclockwise, etc.

Enhance retention: I would hope that the learners, would be able to learn something out of the tutorial and have a better understanding of how to wash and take care of their car. Also if the tutorial was on the internet and people would be able to provide feedback, some of the learners could go out and follow the tutorial and the come back to the site and provide feedback of how well they thought the tutorial worked and maybe they could show some pictures of what their car looks like after following the tutorial.

 

 

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The reason I chose

Color Choices

                The reason I chose the colors I did was because the colors seemed to flow better on the pictures, that I had used and they stood out so you would be able to read the text easier. Trying to find some colors to use with my magazine cover was kind of hard to try and figure out what exactly I was going to use, because of the background picture I had used. I chose the bright colors for my logo/advertisement because I figured that the green and blue would stand out a little better and they would probably appeal to a younger audience and the women would be more attracted to it, more than a man would. I tried to use some bright colors for my landing page, because when people would look at the page, the colors would jump out and bring their attention to certain parts of the page that would hopefully want to make them see what the website looks like. When I made the other logo I used a little bit of some different colors, to try and appeal to some men who have a big dog. I used a gray and some black for the background of the logo and a red text to pop out on the logo.

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The automotive and aircraft

Breakthrough in Automotive and Aircraft design

            The automotive and aircraft designs and vehicles in general have changed a lot over the years. The automotive industry has changed, in trying to be more “green” friendly.  GM and Chrysler have been working on finding different ways on how to save gas and get better mileage. They are doing this, by not changing the cars to all electric, but only have the car use what gas is needed at the time of driving. For instance on” www.esquire.com, they mention about you driving going thirty five miles an hour in a V8. Why open all eight cylinders to have it suck your gas, when you would only need to have only four cylinders running.” The new engine computers that are available in the Chrysler 300C, Dodge Magnum and the GMC Envoy.  The computers can sense how much horsepower is needed at the time you are driving and will open and close the cylinders as needed and only use the gas needed at the time you are driving. So, in other words you could have a V8 but get mileage like a four cylinder.

The Hydrogen car is a huge breakthrough in the automotive industry. Once the hydrogen car can actually get out and in to car dealerships, the U.S won’t have to be so dependent on foreign oil anymore. Also since the earth is always making hydrogen, running out of hydrogen, wouldn’t be something to really have to worry about unlike our oil situation right now. Also with the car being ran on hydrogen it is the only type of vehicle that can guarantee zero emissions, because the only type of fumes leaving the vehicle is water vapor. They hydrogen car could end up replacing the gas powered automobiles overall, sometime in the very near future. There had actually been plans to have hydrogen gas stations, but due to the will of politics etc, that has fallen short for the time being.

Hybrid vehicles and there designs, have helped change and progress our way to a better/cleaner environment. The Toyota Prius is one that comes to mind, it has the best city/highway miles of any car right now. It gets 48 in the city and 51 on the highway.  Also it is a very affordable car, at only 22,000 which is pretty cheap in comparison to the average price of cars know a days. The hybrid cars are gas/electric and the Prius is one of Toyotas best sellers. Another vehicle that is good on mileage is the Smart car. The car gets 33 miles to the gallon in the city and 41 on the highway. The only problem I can see with the design of the smart car is how small it is. It only has enough room for 2 people, and there isn’t much of a trunk, so you won’t be able to carry a lot of groceries or anything. The newest vehicle for mileage, technology and how the car runs is the Chevrolet Volt.  It runs on electricity, but it has a back up gas generator. The difference from other hybrids and the Chevy volt is that it is emissions free as long as it is only running on electric and be able to go hundreds of miles , before having to switch over to gas. If you notice with a lot of new vehicles that are coming out they are more aerodynamic and the top of the cars look more like a chop top. The reason for this is to be able to have more air flow over the car and be able to help increase the mileage. Also the less air the car has to push through the more miles it gets, unlike a semi that is huge and a square front gets less gas mileage, because it is less aerodynamic. Of course, semis though have to carry huge loads etc, compared to a normal vehicle.

A huge breakthrough in aircraft design is that the carbon fiber used on planes could soon be replaced by one atom graphene based polymer. It should be able to withstand the pressure of when an airplane is up in the sky, but be lightweight enough to save and help out on the amount of gas used. Also this type of material, could eventually be used on vehicles as well. So they could be stronger than carbon fiber, but lighter overall to help save on even more gas.

Another big breakthrough in aircraft design is the new design of the entire plane, instead of having a round fuselage, it will be more of an oval. Also changing the placement of the 3 engines to the top rear of the fuselage, will be able to give the plane more lift while being able to reduce the amount of drag. Having the engines placed there will make the plane quieter and the planes body and the tail will help protect the engines. Only thing with the design, is that it is still in the concept stages and probably won’t see an airplane look like how it is described until later on in the future.

The Boeing airplanes have been around for quite some time know and they are finally going to be coming out with two new airplanes, one is called the Boeing 787 dream liner and the other is called 747 8 Intercontinental. The Intercontinental  it has much more room and seems to be very spacious, also it looks like something you would see on futuristic movie. The Intercontinental also has an upper deck, and the plane has more space to store your luggage and is much cleaner and quieter than others. The 787 Dream liner, looks like it is aimed more towards carrying more people, but still having a lot of space to move around and the overhead compartments are bigger as well. I like what they are doing with the lighting in both the planes. They are using LED lighting to help make everything very well lighted and a nicer look to the interior. The cabins in the plane also has a lower  altitude, which will help relieve headaches, jet lag etc. They also have some sort of new technology, to help counter the turbulence and not have as much turbulence and provide a much smoother ride.

So all in all, it looks like the automotive and aircraft industry is heading in the right direction for the future.  It is just going to take time like anything, but once we actually get these designs up and running and on the sales floor, our environment will greatly change, especially our level of pollution and it will help our ozone layer as well. Both the automotive and aircraft industry has worked on changing the size and shape as well as the fuel capacity and emissions. Also they are all integrating new technology in their planes and cars. Whether it be lighting, screens, smoothness of ride, GPS, comfort ability and of course fuel and emissions. I can’t wait for these new and improved vehicles to be available, it will really help out our environment.

 

Bibliography

  1. Boeing’s New Airplane. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.newairplane.com/>.
  2. PurePower® PW1000G Engine. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.purepowerengine.com/>.
  3. “Graphene Breakthrough Could Clear Ultra-light Aircraft for Take-off – 16 Jun 2010 – News from BusinessGreen.” BusinessGreen – News, Comment and Analysis for the Low Carbon Economy. Andrew Donoghue, 16 June 2010. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/1801183/graphene-breakthrough-ultra-light-aircraft>.
  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars H2ICE Vehicles and Infrastructure. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/>.
  5. Peskowitz, By Josh. “Automotive Breakthroughs – Esquire.” Beautiful Women, Men’s Fashion, Best Music, Drink Recipes – Esquire. 1 Feb. 2005. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.esquire.com/features/ESQ0205AUTO_P75_7>.

 

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Biofuels are starting

Biofuels

            Biofuels are starting to become more and more popular, especially with people wanting to better our earth and environment. The good thing about biofuels is that there quite a few different types of fuels related to biofuel. Bioethanol is an alcohol that is made by fermenting parts of sugar of plant materials, that bioethanol is overall made from sugar and starch crops. We already have some vehicles and I know Shell gas station serves Ethanol. Some of the new Chevrolet Suburban’s have made them run on E-85 ethanol and is supposed to be cleaner for the environment as well.

Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. We have a lot of restaurants and businesses, that use a lot of those products and we could recycle all of their vegetable oil, animal fats and grease. McDonald’s is one business that comes to mind, that uses a lot of those resources and would be a good provider for biofuels. Biodiesel is more commonly popular over in Europe.

They have found that some people seem to think that because biofuel is made with corn, a.k.a Ethanol. Due to the use of having to make ethanol it has made the price in food rise. The U.S.A uses about 25% of its entire corn for ethanol and biofuels. Which is why scientists are working on making a biofuel for vehicles to run on plants and that would be even better for the environment. Also due to the constant use of water to make Ethanol, scientists have said that 37 states will have a water shortage by 2013.

Some of the things that seem to be good and effective of biofuels is that it helps with the green house gas emissions. It helps with pollution in the air, it would help with our economy, because it would bring more jobs to Americans. So, we wouldn’t have to be so dependent on foreign countries. Although there are some problems with biofuels right now and that is biodiesel and ethanol are made from oils from plants and edible crop field, so does that mean more competition for part of our food supply, with food or plant oil. Also with how much biodiesel and ethanol we are pumping out right now, the crops can’t keep up with the demand. Also it means we are sacrificing part of our food supply to the country. From what I have found it seems that at the moment, they are just talking about making crops that are specifically for biofuel, they would make them bigger. There has been some new reports with scientists working on making biofuel with Algae, Jatropha, Biocrops, or camalina.  These different types of choices for biofuel, would seem to better benefit our country. I would say the Camalina, would be the best choice for biofuel, because it uses less water or fertilizer.

Biofuels have become an economic alternative to fossil fuels and with advances in technology and the scaling up of production, their price of a gallon will continue to decrease. Oil looks like it is going to maintain its current high prices well into the future, due to the exhaustion of many existing fields, strong demand from developing economies such as India and China, and security concerns which are unlikely to go away. Given these long-term trends, without investment in biofuel technology we actually risk our economies being crippled by sky-high fuel costs, for example if oil prices head up over $100 a barrel. Some subsidies to this investment seem highly justified, especially as they can replace existing agricultural support payments, rather than being additional money.
Biofuels are also a sensible bridge to a greener future, allowing us to develop a better/cleaner future without unbearable economic or social cost. Unlike alternatives such as hydrogen fuel cells, biofuels do not need a completely different infrastructure to be widely adopted.

Microalgae are single-celled photo synthesizers. They make certain fats that can be converted into biodiesel or jet fuel in only a few basic steps. The organisms have become a favorite in the renewable energy sector. On January 14 the U.S. Department of Energy announced they had made an investment of about  44 million in efforts to commercialize algae-based fuels, and last summer even ExxonMobil,  jumped onto the band-pontoon, announcing a partnership with scientist Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics Inc. to develop algae as a fuel source. It still seems that making biofuel out of algae is maybe a few years away at least, before it becomes on the market, just like how ethanol is here in Missouri. Making biofuels out of algae would be a great way to be able to cut back on money spent on oil and fuel in America. Also it would help change some peoples mine with biofuels and how right now we are taking food away from the U.S food supply due to heavy use to make ethanol. Also with the help of biofuel made from algae, it would be domestic and not foreign and would have less foreign trading, which would be able to save America some money that way as well. The money that was spent on buying foreign oil could be put back or used for something else and would maybe be able to help get America out of debt. The biofuels would be a good way to help benefit our country in quite a few ways, more than oil right now. Also biofuels would be cheaper by the barrel compared to our basic oil prices, America is paying know.

Bibliography

“Biofuel Production | Information on the Bio Fuel Production Process.” Biofuels | What Are Bio Fuels and How Are Biofuels Made. 2009. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://www.biofuels.co.uk/biofuelproduction/>

Biofuel Guide – Ethanol and Biodiesel as Alternative Energy. 17 Feb. 2008. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://biofuelguide.net/>.

Hermann, William. “Arizona Set to Become Center for Algae-based, Biofuel Industry.” Arizona Local News – Phoenix Arizona News – Phoenix Breaking News – Azcentral.com. 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2010/08/27/20100827arizona-biofuel-industry-research.html>.

“Biofuels – The New York Times.” The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 08 Dec. 2010. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/info/biofuels/>.

2000, By. “Biofuels: Journey to Forever – How to Make Your Own Clean-burning Biofuel.” Journey to Forever: Hong Kong to Cape Town Overland – An Adventure in Environment and Development, Join Us on the Internet, All Welcome, Participation, Online Education, School Projects, Free of Charge. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel.html>.

“Area Digest: $235,000 Grant to Help Bieber Buy Biofuel Buses.” Berks County News Reading Eagle Newspaper. 8 Dec. 2010. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://readingeagle.com/article.aspx?id=270333>.

 

 

 

 

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I would have to say

Assignment #2

 

I would have to say that I would start with the background, the background is just too busy and is very distracting. The feel of the website I would say seems like it was a horrible site made for little girls. The navigation wasn’t that great as well, there was just things randomly placed on the site, which didn’t help when you are looking for something in particular. I thought the content on the website was kind of just randomly placed everywhere, like there was a flame at the bottom of the page, that had absolutely nothing to do with the theme of the rest of the site at all.

 

I would fix the website by first getting rid of the background and have a solid color, that wouldn’t be so distracting to the customer. I would have a font size of about 14 and the heading of the site about 20 for the font. For the background color depending on what the theme is of the site would depend on the choice of color for the background and foreground,  I would also get rid of the random flames and fix the other pages on the site as well. I would put the navigation tabs on the left hand side and make them user friendly. I would organize the site a lot better than what it is now. I would have the navigation on the left the banner/logo in the top left corner and have the information about whatever the site is about on the main page and then have the contact info on the bottom.