Pizza Hut SWOT analysis

SOWT analysis
The SWOT analysis helps organizations assess issues within and outside the organization. The SWOT analysis, made up of an assessment of strengths, weaknesses, external opportunities and threats from competition, provides an outline for strategic decision-making.

Small businesses, large corporations and individuals can utilize the SWOT analysis process for evaluation. By adding a SWOT analysis in their business plans, small businesses can better clarify their short- and long-range strategies. The SWOT analysis, often found in marketing plans, becomes a useful tool for planning and competitive analysis. Organizations often provide a SWOT analysis in a chart format with each segment represented in a different quadrant.

SWOT analysis of Pizza Hut
In every business company should have SWOT analysis tool, it could analyze strength, weakness, opportunities and threat in every organization. Based on the question pizza hut is a business company therefore it have the SWOT analysis for the product or the services.

The SWOT analysis for pizza Hut Bahrain:-
• Pizza Hut are specialize in pizzas.
• Pizza Hut doesn’t have any pizza’s competitors and they face very low competition in the market.
• It is the leading brands of the pizza.
• Pizza Hut is well known by everyone no matter is eldest or younger.
• In every country they also have their own outlet and store.
• It is a place suitable for family dining
• there are set for family and individual with reasonable price
• Pizza Hut has their own full service restaurant and delivery services compare to others Fast Food Company.
• there have their own loyal customer
• Pizza Hut have a large market share and have a strong network compare with other fast food restaurant.
• Pizza Hut also has a strong advertisement and many media help to attract people
• Pizza Huts store outlets in Bahrain have many ideas for the pizza.
• Every few months or seasons, it will come up with many flavor of the pizza and it will attract more customers to try the new thing.
• Strong franchisees networking
• Communication skills between worker and customer are bad
• Customer service are not meet customer expectations
• Food is not fresh enough
• Need to wait very long to be served even is wait to be seated or take order from customer
• Not in time to deliver the pizza
• Loyal customer is declining because of the satisfaction of the pizza
• sometimes the food are not meet the guest expectations
• Lack of innovation
• Internal factors among the franchisees
• The menu is complicated because there are not only pizzas but other variety of foods.
• Pizza hut delivery have charges but other competitor don’t have
• Pizza Hut face higher overhead of costs to deal with while other competitors don’t have to
• Although they have many outlets around the world but they can explore a new market and gain opportunities
• Pizza Hut should create different flavor and different crust size
• New product development can increase their market share
• Create a new pizza flavor such as Thailand tom yam
• Pizza hut can focus on eastern taste because there are more focus on western taste
• There are many pizza competitor in the market
• Domino pizza is the large competitors to Pizza Hut because they provide a good and efficient delivery.
• Cheese cost are increasing therefore the price of pizza will increase too
• Under independent restaurant can influence pizza hut market share because there are sell pizza with lower price
• Location is an important thing because not every location have the potential customer to afford the meal

Pizza Hut SWOT analysis there will a few part like strengths that say that how the advantages give the Pizza Hut in market and weaknesses that give disadvantages to Pizza Hut market. There also opportunities like how we can have a chances to our business and threats that that have make our business in trouble. The franchises market share status for Pizza Hut is in first place at the year of 2010. Meanwhile, Domino’s Pizza is at second place and Papa John’s Pizza is at third place.

Indian Culture

India is known as the land of culture and tradition and is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Indian culture is rich and unique in its own ways. In India manners and etiquettes, the style of communication, values and beliefs are vital components of the culture. Even though India has accepted the modern means of living and people have improved their lifestyle but the traditions and values are still the same. These traditions, customs and values together make India a very unique country. India is a secular country where many culture and religions are flourishing with peace and prosperity because the culture and tradition in India is deeply rooted within the minds and hearts of people which they have gained from their rich culture.

Introduction to Indian History
The Indus valley civilization saw its genesis in the holy land now known as India around 2500 BC. The people inhabiting the Indus River valley were thought to be Dravidians, whose descendants later migrated to the south of India. The deterioration of this civilization that developed a culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade can be attributed to ecological changes. The second millennium BC was witness to the migration of the bucolic Aryan tribes from the North West frontier into the sub continent. These tribes gradually merged with their antecedent cultures to give birth to a new milieu.

The Aryan tribes soon started penetrating the east, flourishing along the Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. By 500 BC, the whole of northern India was a civilized land where people had knowledge of iron implements and worked as labor, voluntarily or otherwise. The early political map of India comprised of copious independent states with fluid boundaries, with increasing population and abundance of wealth fueling disputes over these boundaries.
Unified under the famous Gupta Dynasty, the north of India touched the skies as far as administration and the Hindu religion were concerned. Little wonder then, that it is considered to be India’s golden age. By 600 BC, approximately sixteen dynasties ruled the north Indian plains spanning the modern day Afghanistan to Bangladesh. Some of the most powerful of them were the dynasties ruling the kingdoms of Magadha, Kosla, Kuru and Gandhara.
Known to be the land of epics and legends, two of the world’s greatest epics find their birth in Indian settings – the Ramayana, depicting the exploits of lord Ram, and the Mahabharta detailing the war between Kauravas and Pandavas, both descendants of King Bharat. Ramayana traces lord Ram’s journey from exile to the rescue of his wife Sita from the demonic clutches of Ravana with the help of his simian companions. Singing the virtues of Dharma(duty), the Gita, one of the most priced scriptures in Indian Mythology, is the advice given by Shri Krishna to the grief laden Arjun, who is terrified at the thought of killing his kin, on the battle ground.
Mahatma Gandhi revived these virtues again, breathing new life in them, during India’s freedom struggle against British Colonialism. An ardent believer in communal harmony, he dreamt of a land where all religions would be the threads to form a rich social fabric.
Indian Culture

“Unity in diversity” – these are not just words, but something that are highly applicable to a country like India that is incredibly rich in culture and heritage. A few quotations or statements cannot describe the pedestal that India holds on to the world map because of its colourful and unique culture. From the times of Mauryas, Cholas and Mughals to the period of British Empire, India has always been famous for its traditions and hospitality. The warmth in the relations and euphoria in celebrations make the country stand out distinctively in the global fraternity. The country’s liveliness and generosity attract a number of tourists to its vibrant culture which is an amalgamation of religions, festivals, food, art, crafts, dance, music and many other subtle things. Everything, from the culture and values to customs, rituals and traditions, is ‘special’ in this ‘Land of Gods’.

Indian Values-Subtle, Apt and Eternal

“The Indian way of life provides the vision of the natural, real way of life. We veil ourselves with unnatural masks. On the face of India are the tender expressions which carry the mark of the Creator’s hand”. …..George Bernard Shaw

The canvas of India’s culture is vast and has hues and vibrancy of all sorts. The country itself has been a living example of tolerance, cooperation and non-violence over so many centuries and continues to do so even today. Some of its various hues can be found in its different ideologies:

Tolerance and Non-Violence: India is one country in the world that has the distinction of being tolerant and not resorting to arms and ammunition in the first place. Mahatma Gandhi’s satyagraha movement is a testimony to this. Swami Vivekananda also aptly enunciated this fact in his speech delivered at Chicago on 11 September 1893, “the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance…”

Secularism: India has also been at the forefront of being a secular country. Freedom of worship and practice of religion is the manifestation of harmonious existence of diverse cultures in India. No religion is looked down upon or uplifted either. In fact, all religions, despite their cultural differences, come together in the times of calamity to show their ‘unity in diversity’.

Cultural and Social Bond: India’s history is replete with instances of cooperation and brotherhood. In spite of having suffered oppression from different foreign conquerors at different periods of history, its culture and oneness has not taken a beating and continued to remain intact.

Indian Culture – Traditional yet Contemporary

Culture plays a pivotal role in the development of any country. A culture of a nation represents its values, goals, practices and shared beliefs. The Indian culture has never been rigid and that’s why it is surviving with pride in the modern era. It timely imbibes the qualities of various other cultures and comes out as a contemporary and acceptable tradition. That is what is unique about the Indian culture, it moves on with the time. There are certain things about India that are famous worldwide, like:

Ways of Greeting

India is a land with varied greeting customs. Different religions here have different ways to express their greetings to others. For instance, in major Hindu families “Namaste” is the most common way of greeting the outsiders and elders. Both palms placed together and raised below the face not only show the respect for others but also makes the greeter feel the affection in return. Similarly, Muslims greet by saying “Adab”, which involves raising of right hand towards the face in such a manner that the palm is inwards and is in front of the eyes with the finger tips almost touching the forehead. It is for sure that no ‘hello’ or ‘hi’ can create that magic.

Flower Garlands

Indian people are also famous for welcoming with flower garlands. In Indian marriages, the exchange of garlands between the bride and the groom is a ritual in itself. People also offer flower garlands to Gods and Goddesses during their prayers.

Indian Marriages

Time has changed but the lavishness has always been an integral and indispensable part of Indian marriages. In India, marriage is still taken as an institution where not two people but two families get united. So, it always calls for boisterous celebrations full of music and dance. Within India, every caste and community has its own way of performing the rituals of marriage. In Hindu marriages, while Punjabis perform the ‘Roka’ ceremony in weddings, Sindhis perform the ‘Berana’. But most common of all is the ritual of Hast Milap ceremony popularly called PaanigrahanSanskaar.

Muslims also have their own special way of celebrating the marriage ceremony, popularly called Nikaah. During the auspicious occasion, the groom’s family gives mehar (nuptial gift) to the bride. Parsis plant a young mango tree in a pot during the marriage ceremony. This ceremony is famous as ‘Madhavsaro’ ceremony. Every state has its own special way of celebrating the marriage ceremony.

Indian Dresses

Beauty of Indian woman lies in the clothes she wears. Very traditional and ethnic yet contemporary Indian saris are famous worldwide. It is worn with a blouse that covers the upper part of the body. In rural parts, an outfit called ghagara-choli is very much popular. Choli is like a short blouse that covers the upper part of the body and ghagara is like a long skirt. In order to have a graceful and complete look, women folk carry a duppatta that is a soft and delicate material of reasonable length thrown over the shoulder.

Though with slight variations, salwar kameez is a dress that is famous in every part of India. This attire contains two pieces – kameez, which is like a long top covering upper part of the body, and salwar is like trousers. Like ghagaracholi, salwar kameez is also complemented by a dupatta.

For men, there is no dearth of variety. From dhoti kurta to shirt pants, an Indian man prefers everything that fits well and looks good. But, traditionally you can see north Indians wearing kurta pajama, dhoti kurta or sherwani on formal celebrations whereas south Indian men prefer lungi with shirt.

Indian Jewellery

Wearing jewellery has a long tradition in India. No doubt it reflects in the fact that jewellery is purchased in India not only for personal use but also for gifting purposes on many auspicious occasions. Besides, it is also passed from generation to generation in the Indian society, thus exemplifying the importance and uniqueness of Indian jewellery in Indian culture.

The unique designs, artistic looks and creativeness of Indian jewellery make it represent the culture and tradition of India. In rural India, a resinous incrustation called lac is used for the personal ornamentation. Specialty of Gujarat and Rajasthan, the lac bangles and bracelets are worn and liked by the women of all states.

Jewellery is an important accessory for every Indian woman. From earrings, nose-rings, armlets, necklaces to anklets and bracelets, Indian jewellery give a woman everything that she needs to enhance her beauty. Some form of jewellery such as mangalsutra, nose and toe rings is also associated typically with married women in India, who also get jewellery as ‘stridhan’ on their marriage.


In Indian marriages, especially in the north, a special night is celebrated before the day of marriage in which mehndi or henna-a kind of paste-is designed on the palms of bridegroom and is followed by some colourful dance and music. It is also designed on the palms of women on some special occasions like their engagement and marriage. The paste is applied for a few hours or overnight and washed when it gets dried completely. This gives reddish-brown colour to the palms. In certain parts of India, mehndi is a special kind of ancient folk art as well.

India-Religiously Yours!

Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Buddhist, Jain or Zoroastrian; one can find people of all religions here in India. India is a secular state and every citizen enjoys an equal right of choosing and following a particular religion. More than three fourth of Indian population belongs to Hindu religion and you can find Hindu pilgrimages in every part of the country.

In Northern part of India, you can visit various sacred religious places like Vaishno Devi, Amarnath, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Haridwar and Varanasi and in the Southern part of the country you can take the blessings of God at the Sabrimala, Sringeri, Dakshineshwar-belur math, and Rameshwaram. If you are in the Northeast, you can go to the Kamrup temple that is located on the outskirts of Guwahati on the Nilachal hills. If you are roaming somewhere around Gujarat and interested in knowing about Lord Krishna, then you must visit Dwarkanath temple that is built at the site where Meera Bai gave up the world. You can also visit Somnath temple that comprises one of the twelve jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva.

The Muslims have their pilgrimages like Dargah Sharif of Ajmer at Rajasthan and Dargah of AjanPir in Assam. In Northeast, there is Poa Mecca. It is believed that here a faithful Muslim can gain one fourth of the spiritual enlightenment that could be gained at Mecca.

In Punjab, there are a number of pilgrimages for Sikhs like Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Tarn Taran in west of Amritsar, Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib in Anandpur, Talwandi Sabo in Bathinda and Dera Baba Nanak in west of Gurdaspur. Hemkund Sahib, which is situated at an altitude of 4329 meters, is the highest Gurudwara in the world. The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, mediated here for years in the mountains and ultimately left his body here to get united with the Almighty.

Another pilgrimage of Sikhs is ManikaranGurudwara that is situated in Himachal Pradesh and is famous for its hot springs. It is believed that these springs carry uranium and other radioactive materials. TakhatSachkhand Sri HazurAbchalnagar Sahib in Maharashtra is another sacred religious place of Sikhs. In India, you can also find a number of churches in every state. If you are in south, you can visit Medak Church and Gundala Church in Andhra Pradesh, Santa Cruz Basilica in Kochi, Kerela. Northern India also has famous churches like St. Joseph’s Church in Uttar Pradesh and Church of the Sacred Heart in New Delhi. If you are enjoying the valleys of Himachal Pradesh, then you can get Jesus’ blessings in Christ Church and St. Michael’s Cathedral at Shimla.

In spite of presence of so much diversity in practice of religion, people still stay united here. It is just the Indian values that bind people together.

Worshipping Nature

Normally, a day in India starts with Surya Namaskar. In this people offer water to the sun and chant mantras and prayers. Indians worship nature and this is unique about its culture. In Hindu religion, trees and animals are worshipped like Gods. People believe in God and keep fast (‘vrata’) on many festivals. They offer morning’s first fresh meal to cow and night’s last meal to dog. Nowhere in the world can one come across such generosity.

All the religions here start the day with morning hymns, and these rich values are inculcated into the kids since childhood. Morning prayers and moral education is also a very important part of the education system in India. Here people are not judged by caste, colour or creed but by their values and this is what makes India a unique place to live.

Everything is Artistic here!

The great variety in performing and visual arts could not be found anywhere else in the world except for India. From a roadside show to a highly sophisticated drama in the theatre, you can find anything and everything here.

Indian art can be categorised into two main forms- performing arts and visual arts.

Performing Arts

Dance, drama, theatre or music, every art is unique in itself. In India, religions, mythology and classical literature form the basis of most of the performing arts:


Indian classical dances like Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kathak, Manipuri, Odissi and Kuchipudi mainly follow the codes of natyashastra, mythology and classical literature and epics like Ramayana and Mahabharta.


Another kind of performing art is theatre. Though the folk theatre prevails in each and every language and region, the professional theatre is popular only in big urban areas or metropolitan cities. Puppet shows were a unique form of Indian theatre. For centuries, puppet shows have been popular in creating awareness about social issues in masses and inculcating the moral values of truth and honesty in the kids.


For Indians, music is to soul what food is to body. Since Vedic period, it has been capturing the heart and mind of every Indian. In the classical Indian music, there are basically two types of schools- the Hindustani Music (North) and the Carnatic Music (South). ‘Raga’ arrangement of musical notes is the key in the classical music. The Indian villages also have their special kind of music that carries colours of folk tradition. Music of Indian movies is also liked by the masses.


Films are another kind of performing arts for which India is quite popular in the world. The country produces more than 1000 movies every year, which not only are popular in the domestic market but also have a wide viewership especially in the Asian and European countries. Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Kannada, Telugu, Bengali or Marathi, India produces movies in every language. Worldwide, Indian film stars are loved and liked in similar ways as Hollywood actors.

Visual Arts

Beauty lies in the eyes of beholder. But, if you look at the sculptures and paintings in India, you cannot live without saying that the beauty lies in the hands of Indian artists.


India’s history in the paintings is prominently visible in the caves of Ajanta and Ellora, Buddhists palm leaf manuscripts and Jain texts. Either it is free form of Ajanta paintings, leaf paintings or glass paintings; India has always been famous for this kind of visual art. The creativity and use of colours has always been graceful and unique in the Indian paintings. Keeping their culture and tradition in mind, Indian artists also imbibe the qualities of other European artists and this gives a contemporary look to the Indian paintings with a traditional touch. Well-known Indian painting schools are Rajput, Deccan, Kangra and Moghul.


From the Cholas dynasty to the present era, India has been ranked on top in the sculpture, another form of visual art. The Deccan temple in Kanchipuram, Madurai &Rameswaram, the Sun temple of Odisha and the Khajurao temple in the Madhya Pradesh, all of these sacred places are the resultants of sophisticated craftsmanship of Indian artisans. The sculptures at Sanchi Stupa throw a light on the life of Buddha and various folk deities. Sculptures of Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda with architectural touch show the social life of Buddha and counterparts. Temples of Ellora and Elephanta caves are the important evident of mastery of Indian sculptures. Flora and Fauna, Deities and various mythological characters; all these form the basis of designs in this beautiful form of visual art.


A very ancient and aesthetic kind of visual art in India is pottery. In this form of art, lumps of clay are hand-molded to form toys and deities of worship. Terracotta and blue gaze are the two main varieties of pottery that are famous in India. Pottery also has a great religious significance. On Durga Puja and Ganesh Chathurthi the beautiful idols of MaaDurga and Lord Ganesha show the confluence of pottery, sculpture and painting.

It Calls for Celebrations!

The ‘Land of Gods’ never needs a particular reason to celebrate. Celebration is a fundamental part of every Indian’s life.

Fairs and Festivals

From January to December, every month comes with a particular fair or festival. Makar Sakranti, Basanti Panchami, Holi, Ram Navami, Janamashtami, Diwali, Eid, MahavirJayanti, Buddha Purnima, Guru Purab and Christmas; the festival of every religion has a significance and it is celebrated in a boisterous way.

Here people don’t need a floor to dance. Celebrations on streets during Durga Puja, Ganesh Chathurthi, Janamashtmi and Holi show the real dancing talents of Indians.

Not only this, the country is famous everywhere for the handicrafts melas and fairs that it organises during particular intervals. Surajkund Craft Mela that is held every year in February in Haryana attracts a large chunk of masses and foreign tourists. In such fairs and festivals, you can find the real India. Such theme melas and festivals unite the whole nation. People come to know about each others’ cultures and traditions and their active participation shows how much they love to know about each other.

It Doesn’t Have Just One-Cuisine!

A number of religions, a number of states and hence, number of cuisines. If North India has cholebhature, tandoori chicken, rajma chawal, kadhichawal, dhokla, daalbaatichurma and biryani to relish, South India is not behind in the race. From masala dosa, ravauttpam, rasam, sambar-lemon rice to toran, appam, meen; the South Indian cuisine has a great variety to offer.

The concept of Thali is very famous in India. A thali is served in a very traditional form and in this you can enjoy the complete variety available in a particular cuisine. In small restaurants, thali is the cheapest way of getting your mouth full. If you have stepped into a hotel, then you can enjoy the variety in the form of combo meals.

The variety in Indian spices like black pepper, coriander seeds, cardamom, saffron and cumin seeds not only enhance the flavour of the food but also add nutritive value to it. The Indian food is incomplete if you don’t get something sweet in the end. Having a bowl full of kheer or a little mithapaan, etc. can add sweetness and freshness to your mouth.

Despite so many diversities, people in India are united and feel proud of their culture and tradition. On the world stage, either through international film festivals or through beauty pageants, India regularly displays its talent and culture. Many rulers came but none could cause any harm to its culture, rather Indians preserved the good values of their cultures. The flexibility and movement with time make Indian culture fashionable and acceptable too.

The Greek

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were famous Greek philosophers who questioned the most basic and widely accepted ideas. Their philosophy was also based on virtue, or moral excellence. Socrates based philosophy on the idea that virtue is knowledge, Plato believed that virtue is a form of understanding and Aristotle believed that virtue is the basis of truths.
Socrates believed that to do wrong is to damage one’s soul, and that this is the worst thing one can do. Also it is always worse to do wrong than to be wronged, and that one must never return wrong for wrong. Socrates also maintained that virtue is knowledge, called the Socratic paradox, and therefore no one can do wrong in full knowledge. Socrates also insisted on being given a definition that universally covers its subject. This was of the greatest importance for the subsequent development of philosophy because it led to the concept of a universal or a general quality that may be present in many individually existing things. Also important is Socrates’ implicit assumption that any person to whom he talks has within him or her, the resources to answer questions correctly. Socrates therefore believes that he can teach merely by asking the right questions.
Plato teaches about the power of reason to reveal the intelligibility and order governing the changing world of appearance and to create a harmonious and happy life. He believed that virtue is a form of understanding and that the good life must consequently be grounded in knowledge. The philosopher is pictured as in love with the world as it truly is. His wish to see through the world of flux to the true principles of its being is thus basically an act of love. This love is not simply an attraction to the good but a creative force for the procreation of the good. Plato was impressed by the fact that language has the capacity both to articulate the intelligibility of the world and to belie the world’s true being.
The art of drama developed in the ancient Greek city-state of Athens in the late sixth century B.C. From the religious chants honoring Dionysus arose the first tragedies, which centered on the gods and Greece’s mythical past. In the fifth century, Greek audiences enjoyed the works of four master playwrights; of these, three—Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides—were tragedians.
The Oresteia is a collection of three plays that explores the last two murders of the Atreides Curse – Agamemnon’s murder by his wife and her lover and his wife and lover’s murder by Agamemnon’s son Orestes. The third play explains the end of the curse.
Sophocles’ Oedipus, the King is a great representation of Greek tragedy and of the human experience. Within it, he explores the intricacies of human thinking and communication along with its ability to change as more information and knowledge is acquired. His primary focus as the story begins and progresses is the growth of Oedipus from an unintelligible and unenlightened mentality to its antithesis.
Euripides went beyond his predecessors to introduce dramatic innovations in both form and content. Known as a philosopher among the poets, Euripides combined a skeptical approach to traditional religion with starkly realistic characterizations. With his realism and treatment of the most violent passions, Euripides was for Aristotle “the most tragic of the poets,” and he profoundly affected the direction of European drama.

Knowledge Management For the project team

Knowledge Management For the project team
Knowledge Management
Knowledge management is the systematic management of an organization’s knowledge assets for the purpose of creating value and meeting tactical & strategic requirements; it consists of the initiatives, processes, strategies, and systems that sustain and enhance the storage, assessment, sharing, refinement, and creation of knowledge.
Knowledge management (KM) therefore implies a strong tie to organizational goals and strategy, and it involves the management of knowledge that is useful for some purpose and which creates value for the organization.
Introducing Knowledge Management

Knowledge management is essentially about getting the right knowledge to the right person at the right time. This in itself may not seem so complex, but it implies a strong tie to corporate strategy, understanding of where and in what forms knowledge exists, creating processes that span organizational functions, and ensuring that initiatives are accepted and supported by organizational members. Knowledge management may also include new knowledge creation, or it may solely focus on knowledge sharing, storage, and refinement. For a more comprehensive discussion and definition, see my knowledge management definition.
It is important to remember that knowledge management is not about managing knowledge for knowledge’s sake.
The overall objective is to create value and to leverage, improve, and refine the firm’s competences and knowledge assets to meet organizational goals and targets. Implementing knowledge management thus has several dimensions including:
• KM Strategy: Knowledge management strategy must be dependent on corporate strategy. The objective is to manage, share, and create relevant knowledge assets that will help meet tactical and strategic requirements.

• Organizational Culture: The organizational culture influences the way people interact, the context within which knowledge is created, the resistance they will have towards certain changes, and ultimately the way they share (or the way they do not share) knowledge.

• Organizational Processes: The right processes, environments, and systems that enable KM to be implemented in the organization.

• Management & Leadership: KM requires competent and experienced leadership at all levels. There are a wide variety of KM-related roles that an organization may or may not need to implement, including a CKO, knowledge managers, knowledge brokers and so on. More on this in the section on KM positions and roles.

• Technology: The systems, tools, and technologies that fit the organization’s requirements – properly designed and implemented.
• Politics: The long-term support to implement and sustain initiatives that involve virtually all organizational functions, which may be costly to implement (both from the perspective of time and money), and which often do not have a directly visible return on investment.
Typically, failed initiatives have often placed an undue focus on knowledge management tools and systems while neglecting the other aspects. This issue will also be addressed throughout the site, and particularly in the knowledge management strategy section.
At this point, the articles presented on this site focus on the first five dimensions. Originally, I had deemed the political dimension to be beyond the scope of this site, since it is not something that is commonly tackled in KM literature. However, I will add a section on the political aspect of KM in the future.
Throughout the site, I will explain and discuss known theories, occasionally contributing with some of my own frameworks. I will also discuss the potential role of knowledge management systems from a broad perspective, and in the section on KM tools I will provide specific advice on this topic. I have tried to organize the site as logically as possible, moving from a general introduction to knowledge and KM to introducing key subjects like organizational memory, learning, and culture. The later sections discuss several models and frameworks as well as knowledge management initiatives, strategy, and systems, before finally presenting an overview of various tools and techniques

Project management is the process of analyzing, planning, organizing, monitoring and managing resources to bring out the successful completion of specific project and customer satisfaction.
A project manager takes responsibility for planning and managing to deliver success on a project. The role of the project manager is to ensure the mixing of management process and manage through project management cycle that leads to the successful completion of the project. Project manager must be able to encourage and keep up people. Project team members will look to the project manager to solve problems and help with removing obstacles. In simple words, a good Project manager must be able to
• Deliver projects on time
• Deliver projects within cost
• Deliver projects within scope and
• Meet customer quality requirements
• Some of the activities of the good Project manager
• Define the project
• Reduce the project into set of understandable modules
• Form a group of team to complete the task
• Allocate resources based on the module Complexity.
• Motivate and encourage his team to complete the task on time
• Must evaluate and analyze the risks of the project and reduce them.
• Must be able to adapt and manage any change in the project.
Skills needed for a Good Project Manager
A project team needs the way for the life of the project and the project manager is the responsible for leading the team to achieve the goal of the project. A project manager achieves this by coordinating and motivating the team members.
Project leading is the key role, it involves with others to achieve the success of the project. The leading includes the effective of facilitate and motivate- this will conclude the ability of the project manager.
People Management:
At the time of project planning and development, the manager has to meet the various kinds of people like customers, suppliers, functional managers and project team members. The role of the manager is to satisfy the all kind of people to bring the successful completion of the specific project.
Effective communication:
The communication is plays an essential role in the project management. The verbal and written communication is vital in project management that enables a project manager to convey project information in a way that it is received and understood by all project team members.
Communication is only successful when both the sender and receiver understand the information.
Conflict management:
Conflict occurs when two or more people against one another because their needs, wants, goals, or values are different. Conflict management is the practice of identifying and handling conflict in a wise, reasonable, and well-organized manner. Conflict management requires such skills as efficient communicating, trouble solving and negotiating with a focus on wellbeing.
The planning of the project involves defining about the project, fix the timeline for the project, plan about the implementation and monitor who will do it. The project manager is responsible for creating the project plans, defining about the project goals, project objectives and resources needed for doing the project
The project manager is also responsible for updating the new changes in the project plan to all the stakeholders and ensures that the changes are being incorporated in all the project activities.
In project management accurate estimates are the key role for sound project planning. A good project manager should be able to estimate the cost of the project and should complete the project within that estimation.
Problem solving:
All projects are level to meet problems, problems that were not identified in the risk or scope of the project and that will need to be managed accordingly, trouble solving requires a good explanation of the problem that is detected early enough to allow time to respond.
The project manager needs synthesis and analysis thinking skills. Analysis is the skill of breaking a whole project into component parts, mush like decomposing a work.
Time management:
The time management is most commonly known as project planning and project scheduling. A good manager should be able to manage the time and complete the project to achieve aim and objective and it can be delivered to client on time.
Personal skills:
The project manager must be able to motivate the team and complete the project within the timeline and estimation. The project team members will be watching all the activities of the project manager, so a manager must be sincere, clear-cut and familiar in all dealings with the people and in the project.
Project managers must be always having a positive attitude, even when there are significant difficulties or problems. Project managers are respected if they are direct, open and deal with all type of problems.
Coping skills:
A good project manager has to attain a many number of skills to cope with different situations, conflicts, uncertainty and doubts. A good project manager has a high tolerance for surprises, uncertainty and ambiguity.
Negotiation skills:
The negotiation is the procedure of accepting a mutual agreement from the group or individuals. The manager has to negotiate on behalf of association depending on the project construction and the level of manager authorization.
Conceptual skills:
Conceptual skills is the capability to organize and incorporate all the project efforts, it requires to the good project manager to see the project as a whole and not just the sum of its parts, capability to recognize how all the parts make a whole and how they all relate and depend on one another, and the ability to anticipate how a change on one part of the project will affect the entire project.
Advantages to team members when the Manager is good:
• Opportunity to learn from the Manager every day.
• A motivation to work hard and give your 200% involvement.
• Makes you feel that you are on right career path.
• Makes you feel free to discuss the task about the project.
Organizational learning
Organizational Learning is concerned with gathering of understanding through various actions or practice in organizations. Organizational Learning recommends that the employees lead learning in organizational setting, and utilize what they learn in their job. Neilson reflect on Organizational Learning as a incessant process of knowledge formation, gaining and transformation.

Knowledge management capability

The managerial capability refers to an organization’s expertise, knowledge, and familiarity, which are applied to manage complex and difficult tasks in management and creation (Choi and Shepherd, 2004). Knowledge Management Capability has been acknowledged as a fundamental feature for obtaining and supporting a competitive advantage (Corsoa et al., 2006).

Organizational Performance

Organizational Performance is an indication which evaluates how healthy an enterprise attains their goals. Organizational Performance can be evaluated by an organization’s competence and success of goal attainment stated that the idea of effectiveness is a proportion, meaning that two things are needed when explaining and assessing effectiveness. He also stated that when effectiveness is conceptualized as an extent of purpose achievement, that is, the attainment of profitability goals.

Project on Information system

Information system
Information system is the collection of technical and human resources that provide the storage, computing, distribution, and communication for the information required by all or some part of a firm. A special form of Information system is a management information system , which provides information for managing afirm

Trends of modern information system
• Converging administrative and academic solutions
• E-Business
• Alternative technology models
• Support of emerging institutional requirements using administrative systems
• Leveraging administrative systems infrastructure for strategic uses

Decision-making is a daily doings for any human being. When it comes to business firms, decision-making is a habit and a process as well. Effective and successful decisions result in returns, while unsuccessful ones cause losses. Corporate decision-making is the most critical process in any firm. In a decision-making process, we choose one sequence of action from a few possible replacements. In the process of decision-making, we may use many tools, techniques, and perceptions.

Information system involvement and Business Decisions
1. Programmed Decisions:
Normal decisions which for all time follow the similar agenda. Given that such, they can be written down into a series of fixed phases which anybody can follow. They might even be written as computer program.
2. Non-Programmed Decisions.
These are substandard and non-routine. Every choice is not rather the alike as any prior choice.
3. StrategicDecisions.
These influence the permanent direction of the trade
4. Operational Decisions.
Temporary decisions regarding how to be significant the plans
Information management helps daily decision making

Types of information system
Following are the types of information system
 Management Information Systems
 Decision-Support Systems
 Office Automation Systems
 Executive Support Systems
 Knowledge Management Systems
 Operations support systems, including transaction processing systems
 Marketing Information System
 Enterprise Resource Planning

There are many types of information systems, depending on the requirement they are designed to fill. An operations support system, such as a transaction processing system, converts business data (financial transactions) into valuable information.

Also, a management information system uses database information to output reports, helping users and businesses make decisions based on extracted data.

In a decision support system, data is pulled from many sources and then reviewed by managers, who make determinations based on the collected data.

An executive information system is useful for examining business trends, allowing users to quickly access custom strategic information in summary form, which can be reviewed in more detail

A marketing information system (MIS) can be used by marketing managers and researchers to manage a vast flood of information by organizing data in a logical and availableway. Over this system, a business can monitor its performance in the market and identify difficulties and opportunities with in a market

The potential usage in the business sectors
To get the maximum benefits from our firm’s information system, we have to activate all its capacities. Information systems increase their importance by processing the data from firm inputs to generate information that is useful for managing our operations. To increase the information system’s effectiveness, we can either add more data to make the information more accurate or use the information in new ways.
Part of management is gathering and distributing information, and information systems can make this process more efficient by allowing managers to communicate rapidly. Email is quick and effective, but managers can use information systems even more efficiently by storing documents in folders that they share with the employees who need the information. This type of communication lets employees collaborate in a systematic way. Each employee can communicate additional information by making changes that the system tracks. The manager collects the inputs and sends the newly revised document to his target audience.
How we manage our firm’s operations depends on the information we have. Information systems can offer more complete and more recent information, allowing we to operate our firm more efficiently. We can use information systems to gain a cost advantage over competitors or to differentiate ourself by offering better customer service. Sales data give us insights about what customers are buying and let we stock or produce items that are selling well. With guidance from the information system, we can streamline our operations.
The firm information system can help we make better decisions by delivering all the information we need and by modeling the results of our decisions. A decision involves choosing a course of action from several alternatives and carrying out the corresponding tasks. When we have accurate, up-to-date information, we can make the choice with confidence. If more than one choice looks appealing, we can use the information system to run different scenarios. For each possibility, the system can calculate key indicators such as sales, costs and profits to help us determine which alternative gives the most beneficial result.
Our firm needs records of its activities for financial and regulatory purposes as well as for finding the causes of problems and taking corrective action. The information system stores documents and revision histories, communication records and operational data. The trick to exploiting this recording capability is organizing the data and using the system to process and present it as useful historical information. We can use such information to prepare cost estimates and forecasts and to analyse how our actions affected the key firm indicators.

Information System provides the following advantages.
1. It Facilitates planning
Information System progresses the quality of plants by providing appropriate information for sound decision – making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of firms, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations.
2. In Minimizes information overload
Information System change the bigger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.
3. It Encourages Decentralization:
Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. Information System is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures.
4. It brings Co-ordination
Information System facilities combination of specialized activities by keeping each section aware of the problem and requirements of other sections. It connects all decision centers in the firm.

5. It makes control easier
Serves as a relationship between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance. The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost.
6. Information System assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information

Information systems are used by organizations to track, store, manipulate and distribute information to the appropriate people when necessary. Using a management information system can enable a business to streamline its operations into a cohesive functioning unit. Management information systems support business decision-making by providing management with critical data. They serve to enhance the organization’s communication, reduce human labor, support short- and long-term business goals and distribute complex information.


Impact on Oil Producers

Impact on Oil Producers
Algeria is heavily reliant on oil and natural gas export revenues. Declining oil revenues are a complicating factor for a country which is already experiencing severe economic and social tensions and has suffered an estimated 75,000 deaths resulting from a six-year conflict with the Islamic Salvation Front and the Armed Islamic Group.

Indonesia’s oil revenues were expected to falland in addition to the already dire economic conditions that Indonesia finds itself in as part of the Asian economic crisis.

Venezuela will be hit hardest by falling oil prices because of its troubled economy. Venezuela, the world’s ninth-largest oil exporter and holder of the biggest proven oil reserves, needs oil prices at around $120 a barrel — or 50 percent higher than today — to keep its economy afloat, according to the International Monetary Fund.

Petroleum accounts for nearly all of Nigerian exports, with 95 percent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings and 85 percent of its total revenues coming from crude oil sales. This lack of economic diversity makes Nigeria especially vulnerable to price swings, and Africa’s largest oil producer is already showing signs of suffering.

Falling oil prices will have a less dramatic impact on the Russian economy in the near term. The country has around $450 billion in reserves to hedge some of the effects of cheaper crude, and that cash could last for up to a year.

The price drop could also undermine Petrobras’ long-term plans for expansion. The company projected global prices would hover around $100 a barrel through 2030; a lower price would make it harder to fund new infrastructure and exploration projects.

As in Brazil, cheaper oil could hamper the progress of Mexico’s long-awaited energy sector reforms. But lower prices could affect investor interest in the kinds of large-scale projects needed to revamp the country’s sluggish oil and gas industries.Mexico’s government also stands to lose a sizable chunk of public funding.

The Gulf States, Libya and Iran
The Middle East and North Africa contain the highest concentration of oil-dependent economies in the world. The region accounts for nearly a third of seaborne crude oil and liquefied natural gas exports. The Middle East — specifically the Persian Gulf — also accounts for the majority of OPEC production and exports. Therefore, the Middle East is the region that is most exposed to volatility in global energy markets — and the region that can cause the most variation, as seen by Libya’s production fluctuations. A sustained drop in the price of oil below $90 per barrel could jeopardize the economic stability that many of the region’s energy exporters have enjoyed following the tumult of the Arab Spring.

economy of bahrain

Bahrain has grown successfully over the past 10 years, due its liberal economic policies, and has a clear roadmap for improving the prosperity of all in society. The economy of Bahrain according to the index of economic freedom of 2006, is considered to be the most freedom in the middle east and occupies the twenty fifth rank in the world. The progress of its economy is because that the government of Bahrain wants to diversify the economy in order to reduce dependence on its oil which is decreasing yearly and because it encourages the foreign investment.

The economy of Bahrain is described as a modern economy with regular organization and has a distinctive communications and transport infrastructure, as well as , there are many international companies operating in the Gulf –States and have their headquarters in Bahrain .

Bahrain has expanded its heavy industries, banking sector and tourism, so that it is considered to be the main banking hub in the Gulf states and center for Islamic finance .This led to strong organizational structure for industry in Bahrain.

It has benefited from the boom of oil in 2001, that led to economic growth and succeeded to attract investments from Gulf States that contributed in developing infrastructure and other projects to improve the standard of living such as health, education, housing, electricity , water supply and roads .

The oil and natural gas are the main resources in Bahrain that form 60 % of its revenues. Other industries of Bahrain include aluminum and its related factories , and manufacturing and repairing of ships .Bahrain has made great strides in aspects of technology of information and development of programmes related to modern solutions for the age’s problems .
Tourism in Bahrain has flourished due to the large number of tourist sights that its root belong to ancient civilizations, in addition to modern sights , popular and gold markets .
The National Development Strategy is a regularly updated action-plan that will turn the Vision into reality, setting specific milestones in the public and private sectors including education and training, the economy, health and society.
Bahrain Economy Data
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Population (million) 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
GDP per capita (USD) 25,441 26,383 27,689 27,913 25,995
GDP (USD bn)
28.7 30.4 32.5 33.4 31.8
Economic Growth (GDP, annual variation in %)
2.1 3.4 5.4 4.5 2.9
Consumption (annual variation in %)
6.6 1.1 4.7 3.0 –
Investment (annual variation in %)
-35.1 27.5 -13.7 0.9 –
Unemployment Rate
4.0 3.9 4.3 4.1 4.2
Fiscal Balance (% of GDP)
-0.3 -2.0 -3.3 -3.6 –
Public Debt (% of GDP)
28.9 33.6 41.3 42.0 –
Money (annual variation in %)
3.4 4.1 8.2 6.5 –
Inflation Rate (CPI, annual variation in %)
-0.4 2.8 3.3 2.7 1.8
Policy Interest Rate (%)
0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.75
Exchange Rate (vs USD)
0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
Exchange Rate (vs USD, aop)
0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
Current Account (% of GDP)
11.2 7.2 7.8 3.3 –
Current Account Balance (USD bn)
3.2 2.2 2.5 1.1 –
Trade Balance (USD billion)
7.5 6.5 7.3 7.4 –
Exports (USD billion)
19.6 19.7 20.9 20.7 –
Imports (USD billion)
12.1 13.2 13.6 13.3 –
Exports (annual variation in %)
44.0 0.6 5.9 -0.8 –
Imports (annual variation in %)
8.2 9.3 3.2 -2.5 –
International Reserves (USD)
4.5 5.2 5.3 5.2 –

Bahrain GDP
GDP at purchaser’s prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. The GDP in Bahrain was worth 32.22 billion US dollars in 2015. The GDP value of Bahrain represents 0.05 percent of the world economy. GDP in Bahrain averaged 12.01 USD Billion from 1980 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 33.85 USD Billion in 2014 and a record low of 3.05 USD Billion in 1986.
Date Value Change, %
2005 15.97
2006 18.5 15.88%
2007 21.73 17.43%
2008 25.71 18.32%
2009 22.93 -10.78%
2010 25.71 12.10%
2011 28.77 11.91%
2012 30.74 6.86%
2013 32.53 5.82%
2014 33.38 2.61%
2015 31.12 -6.78%

Bahrain – Real GDP growth
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Year Value Change, %
2005 6.8
2006 6.5 -4.46%
2007 8.3 28.25%
2008 6.2 -24.74%
2009 2.5 -59.29%
2010 4.3 70.68%
2011 2 -54.25%
2012 3.7 87.90%
2013 5.4 45.31%
2014 4.4 -19.68%
2015 2.9 -34.20%
2016 2.1 -26.58%

Bahrain – GDP per capita
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. GDP is expressed in current U.S. dollars per person. Data are derived by first converting GDP in national currency to U.S. dollars and then dividing it by total population.
Date Value Change, %
2005 17,962
2006 19,263 7.24%
2007 20,904 8.52%
2008 23,231 11.13%
2009 19,461 -16.23%
2010 20,823 7.00%
2011 24,075 15.62%
2012 25,221 4.76%
2013 26,166 3.75%
2014 26,322 0.59%
2015 24,058 -8.60%
2016 24,119 0.26%

Bahrain – CPI inflation
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Data for inflation are averages for the year, not end-of-period data.
Date Value Change, %
2006 2 -22.04%
2007 3.3 59.33%
2008 3.5 8.64%
2009 2.8 -21.17%
2010 2 -29.26%
2011 -0.4 -118.78%
2012 2.8 -848.11%
2013 3.3 19.15%
2014 2.7 -19.62%
2015 1.8 -30.74%
2016 3.6 98.53%

The unemployment rate in Bahrain and other countries is defined as the number of unemployed people as percent of the labor force. The labor force includes the people who are either employed or unemployed, i.e. who don’t have a job but are actively looking for one. The labor force does not include people who are not looking for work, children, and the retired.

Unemployment Rate in Bahrain remained unchanged at 3.70 percent in December from 3.70 percent in November of 2012. Unemployment Rate in Bahrain averaged 4.18 percent from 2006 until 2012, reaching an all time high of 16 percent in December of 2006 and a record low of 3.30 percent in November of 2008.
Date Value Change, %
2007 5.6
2008 3.7 -33.93%
2009 4 8.11%
2010 3.6 -10.00%
2011 4 11.11%
2012 3.9 -2.50%
2013 4.4 11.82%
2014 4.2 -4.29%

Oil comprises 86% of Bahraini budget revenues, despite past efforts to diversify its economy and to build communication and transport facilities for multinational firms with business in the Gulf. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf Countries. Low oil prices have generated a budget deficit of at least a $4 billion deficit in 2015, 13% of GDP. Bahrain has few options for covering this deficit, with meager foreign assets and a constrained borrowing ability, stemming in part from a sovereign debt rating averaging just above “junk” status.

Other major economic activities are production of aluminum – Bahrain’s second biggest export after oil – finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries.

In 2011 Bahrain experienced economic setbacks as a result of domestic unrest driven by the majority Shia population, however, the economy recovered in 2012-15, partly as a result of improved tourism. In addition to addressing its current fiscal woes, Bahraini authorities face the long-term challenge of boosting Bahrain’s regional competitiveness—especially regarding industry, finance, and tourism—and reconciling revenue constraints with popular pressure to maintain generous state subsidies and a large public sector.