Your Rights Against Age Discrimination

Your Rights Against Age Discrimination

State and federal laws protect workers from discrimination based on age.

Stereotypes about older people abound in our culture, but employers are not allowed to rely on them when making workplace decisions. A number of state and federal laws prohibit employers from discriminating against employees and applicants based on age.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act

The federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act, or ADEA ( 29 U.S.C. §§ 621-634), is the primary federal law that prohibits employers from discriminating against employees and applicants who are at least 40 years old based on age.

The ADEA protects workers from age discrimination in every phase of the employment relationship, including job advertisements, interviewing, hiring, compensation, promotion, discipline, job evaluations, demotion, training, job assignments, and termination. In a recent case, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the ADEA prohibits practices and policies that are seemingly neutral, but have a disproportionately negative impact on older workers (disparate impact), as well as those that explicitly treat older workers worse than younger workers (disparate treatment). (See Smith v. City of Jackson, Mississippi, 125 S.Ct. 1536 (2005).)

Not only does the ADEA prohibit employers from discriminating against older workers in favor of those who are younger than 40, it also prohibits employers from discriminating among older workers. For example, an employer cannot hire a 43-year-old rather than a 53-year-old simply based on age.

The ADEA applies to all private employers with 20 or more employees and to federal and local governments. It also applies to state governments, although their employees cannot sue them directly for age discrimination.

Discrimination in Benefits and Early Retirement

The federal Older Workers Benefit Protection Act, or OWBPA (29 U.S.C. § 623 and following), amended the ADEA to specifically make it illegal for employers to use an employee’s age as a basis for discrimination in benefits and retirement. Like the rest of the ADEA, the OWBPA only protects people who are at least 40 years old.

The OWBPA prohibits age discrimination in the provision of fringe benefits, such as life insurance, health insurance, disability benefits, pensions, and retirement benefits. Typically, this means that employers must provide equal benefits to older and younger workers. For some types of benefits, however, employers can meet this nondiscrimination requirement by spending the same amount on the benefit provided to each group, even if older workers receive lesser benefits. In some circumstances, employers are also allowed to provide lesser benefits to older workers if those workers receive additional benefits — from the government or the employer — to make up the difference.

State Laws

Many state laws also prohibit discrimination on the basis of age. Although some of these laws essentially mirror federal law and protect only employees who are at least 40 years old, other state laws are broader and protect workers of all ages.

State laws tend to apply to employers with fewer than 20 employees, so your employer might have to comply with your state law even if it isn’t covered by federal law.



Art means several

Art and Culture

Art means several things to me. First of all when I see art, I can imagine what the artist may having been looking at, imagining or feeling at the time the piece was created. Art also gives the artist the opportunity to show things that other may not see themselves, or in some cases want to see. Take the streets of New York for instance. Some artists may portray the city in its beauty while others may show the images behind the scenes. For instance, homeless people on the street, the litter all around, robberies and so on.

Art is also related to culture. The type of art created is sometimes reflected on what culture the artist was brought up on. Many different cultures have many different views on art.

Art in Everyday Life

Art usually goes unnoticed; however, people use art in everyday life. Take bakers for example. A wedding cake baker has to have creativity to do well in the business. Bakers have to come up with new cutting edge designs to keep up with the culture and current style. They also use an architect’s techniques and other artist’s techniques to build their cakes.

Chefs also relate and are influenced by art. When people eat they tend to eat with their eyes first. If a meal does not look appetizing chances are the person will not like it. When you are a chef you have to have creativity to come up with new dishes. Many people can make a macaroni and cheese dish, but to make an award winning macaroni and cheese dish you need creativity.

Art also can affect people every day. From what they wear to where they decided to live or shop. Think if there were two grocery stores right next to each other. One is a square, boring cream color building, and the other is a three dimensional building with vibrant colors. Which one do you think will bring in more business?

Personal Experience

My personal experience with art has come in several different ways. For one example, when I graduated high school I attended beauty school. I thought that creating art in the form of hairstyling was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life. After a year of school, I decided that it wasn’t for me. However, I discovered that decorating was more up my alley. I enjoy interior decorating. I constantly come up with new ideas for the layout and art of my home. I never actually thought of that as art until reading through the chapters in our textbook.


When I first thought of art, the first thing that comes to mind is paintings and sculptures. After learning more about the true meaning of art, I’ve come to discover that you apply art in everything you do. From the moment you wake up in the morning and do your hair and makeup and pick out an outfit for the day, to cleaning and decorating your home, as well as cooking dinner for your family. Art is applied to your everyday life whether you realize it or not.



Greek and Roman Architecture

CheckPoint: Greek and Roman Architecture

Greek and Roman Architecture are two of the most defined and easily recognized types of architecture there is. Greek architecture really started to be recognized during the seventh century. Originally this type of building started with the use of wood and a type of dense mud, but naturally, today they are mostly constructed of limestone and some are made with marble. There are three classes of Greek architecture which are Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman, but the main styles are Ionic and Doric. The Doric style was most popular in the larger part of Greece and it spilled over into Italy and it is considered the more formal out of the two. The Ionic style, on the other hand was meant to be more decorative and relaxed. One of the most iconic examples of Greek architecture would be the Pantheon, known all over the world and beautiful in its complexity.


Roman architecture is considered to be the more advanced of the two in both areas of design and engineering. This style focuses largely on columns. The Romans share the Doric and Ionic styles with the Greeks, but they also implement Corinthian styled columns in their work. This type is considered to be more detailed and superior in style and elegance. Roman architecture is also known for the use of arches, which in their day were baffling to most people. The mystery of how they provided support without caving in was intriguing. The use of these arches lead to the development of the dome. Sticking with iconic examples of architecture, the Roman Coliseum is one of the best for Roman architecture. It shows the Romans’ work at its very best. Both of these types of architecture feed off of one another and they were the product of exceptional engineering and building techniques for their age and each still have an air of mystery surrounding them.



How do differences in Bernini’s David versus Michelangelo’s David represent differences in the Renaissance and Baroque styles

In this paper I will answer the question, “How do differences in these statues represent differences in the Renaissance and Baroque styles,” referencing Bernini’s David versus Michelangelo’s David. The sculptures are drastically different from one another. Each one is unique in its own certain way.


Michelangelo’s reputation as a sculptor was established when he carved his David at the edge of twenty-seven from a single piece of relatively unworkable marble. Unlike other David’s that were sculpted around the same time period, Michelangelo’s is not shown after conquering his enemy. Instead, he is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant’s defeat (Wikipedia, 2006). Cast over his shoulder is David’s sling, and the stone is clutched in his right hand, his veins in anticipation of the fight. Michelangelo’s David depicts the ideal youth who has just reached manhood and is capable of great physical and intellectual feats, which is part of the Classical tradition. Michelangelo’s sculpture is closed in form and all the elements move firmly around a central axis.
Bernini’s David, which is notably different from Michelangelo’s, did not emulate Michelangelo’s posturing adolescent. Bernini’s hero is full-grown and fully engaged-both physically and psychologically-as he takes aim and twists his tensed, muscular body a split second before slinging the stone, grasped in his left hand. “The right side shows David’s movements; his stride is almost a leap as he aims his sling. Seen from the front the pose is frozen, just one second before the fatal shot, and seen diagonally there is a rhythmic balance between movement and pose (Web Gallery of Art, 2006).” David stands alone, but Goliath is simplicity envisioned directly behind the viewer. “The viewer is almost prompted to move from the path of the projectile. The space in front of the statue becomes a part of the concept (Sculpture Gallery, 2006).” Present in this sculpture are three of the five characteristics of Baroque art: motion, a different way of looking at space and the introduction of the concept of time. Michelangelo presented David before the battle, with the tension and emotion evident in every vein and muscle while Bernini depicts David before or after the fight. He shows him in the process of the fight. This represents the element of time in his work. The viewers are forced to complete the action that David has begun for us.
As you can see, the works sculpted by Michelangelo and Bernini differed drastically. Although both of the above artists chose the same subject matter, there are many differences between their sculptures. The first difference is the moment the artist chose to represent. Michelangelo chose to represent David thinking about what he is about to do the moment just before the start of the battle while Bernini chose to represent an event frozen in time suggesting the release of the stone. Bernini’s David is bursting with the same energy that Michelangelo had stored in his figure, however Bernini’s figure implies another figure in our space, Goliath. Both statues are unique and beautiful in their own respect.

Works Cited

1. Sculpture Gallery. Retrieved May 5, 2006 from http://www.sculpturegallery.com/sculpture/david_by_bernini.html.

2. Web Gallery of Art. Retrieved May 5, 2006 from http://www.wga.hu/index1.html.

3. Wikipedia. Retrieved May 5, 2006 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo’s_David.



drawings of michelangelo and davinci

Michelangelo used his drawings to prepare his paintings. His drawings were merely sketches used to help him through whatever painting or sculpture he was working on at the time.

He used them to find poses and capture how the people in his art would stand, sit, or otherwise. It seems as though Michelangelo’s drawings were an emotional part of the process as well. He did not like showing them to people maybe because he did not want people to see that side of his masterpieces; he wanted them to only see the beautiful finished product.
Da Vinci was a scientist as well as an artist. Many of his drawings are of the human body and skeletons. It doesn’t really look like he used his drawings in the same way as Michelangelo. Da Vinci’s drawings seem to be more accurate and detailed than Michelangelo’s. To me it seems that da Vinci’s drawings were more of the scientific side of him. They were detailed and labeled and I am guessing they were used as study tools.



Elements of Design: Movie Clip “Somewhere Over the Rainbow” “Mise-en-scene” is all about the fundamentals come into view over the screen while the movie is produced.

Elements of Design: Movie Clip “Somewhere Over the Rainbow”

“Mise-en-scene” is all about the fundamentals come into view over the screen while the movie is produced. As per the techniques of filming, mise-en-scene usually consists of “setting, costume and makeup, lighting, and staging etc” (Roberts 2006). In this paper we are going to analyze the movie clip “Somewhere Over the Rainbow” from the movie “The Wizard of Oz”. The main point I will show is how the filmmakers effectively use the aspects of mise-en-scene like setting, costume and makeup, lighting, sound, and staging etc. throughout this movie clip.

In the movie clip “Somewhere Over the Rainbow” all the aspects of mise-en-scene have been considered and all put up together to form a stunning viewing experience. Established in 1939 and “directed by Victor Fleming,” “The Wizard of Oz” was one of the first Technicolor film successful. Since this film had been shooting in the first place in color, and gave the directors and fashion designers many new opportunities to use colors in ways that were not able to before. Though this  clip is not in color the viewers may think that there is no contribution of lights and other effects. But this is not true. As we know that this clip is an outdoor scene, it is not filmed outdoors. And it is all the effects of camera and lighting that we seen behind Dorothy. The sky, clouds and the sunrays have just been created.

This movie clip is in sepia. The fashion in this clip has been made is easy and simple and very typical costumes were employed that will actually be worn on a farm at the time. Along with the representation of the fashion of earthly life on the farm and the class of the family that came from Dorothy.

This clip represents the absence of color in the state of Kansas which is symbolic for the difficulties of the Great Depression that was happening at that time. And the face of these relations to the real world to the public in the story and began to prepare for what happened after that.

This clip was filmed by the process of small-scale three-strip Technicolor, though the entire film was not in black and white. “In the three-strip Technicolor process we have three separate segments of black and white film; and through a prism that separates the three primary colors.” (Roberts 2006) The process is very complicated to handle and huge amounts of light required exposing correctly. While “the most expensive process available to Hollywood at the time yielded an unparalleled quality of color.” (Roberts 2006)

This clip presents an outdoor scene but it was filmed in doors in the studio. The director chose the studio in a three-tape and “it worked well with the black and white stock” (Roberts 2006). Producer and director treated the framing of the imagination of Dorothy in black in white. For these reasons, an event production in the home entirely on sound stages of MGM. Due to a large group used up to “nine cameras hidden in bushes or potted plants to shoot one scene.” (Roberts 2006) Because the film was filmed in a specific studio, there fell “a lot of responsibility on the department of special effects.” It employed widely for the depth of the issues of the nature of the state of Kansas, and a sense of distance to the Earth from Oz.

This clip do not give the idea that the dress was blue or Dorothy’s Toto was dark gray. Talking about the costume of Dorothy we see that she wears a stiff, buttoned, to-the-top shirt dress with her hair tied. It can be assumed that her dress (although the scene in black white) to be pale in color and stiff material singing in a very soft low voice. “One of the most famous songs, Over the Rainbow won the Academy Award for Best Music Song” (Roberts 2006). The purpose of this song is to add fantasy elements.

The sound and music is also great; this song is a very softly sung song  by “Judy Garland  Over the Rainbow is a slow tempo ballad, written in A-A-B-A form; each A section starts out Somewhere over the rainbow… and continues by describing a fairytale state, such as …a land in a lullaby or “dreams come true.”

Each scene represents a certain genre of movie / style / shot that ate its way in his mind as Dorothy grew up; but that he manages to create a quaint and beautiful hybrid film that amazingly original and undefined. By the progress of the movie we find the integration of striking colors, sounds and music make it almost symphonic poem on one level, but his sense of the absurd shaking it free from any potential claims of art and provides a unique stunning breathtaking viewing experience.

Much of Dorothy’s critical dialogue is given to the audience through song. Her iconic opening song, “Somewhere Over the Rainbow,” illustrates in detail her imaginative longing to escape from her world in Kansas, where she is alienated and isolated from her working family, to an idealized place of magic and fantasy.

This famous clip, “Somewhere Over the Rainbow,” explains in detail her imagination to escape from the world that she had in the state of Kansas. The place where she can be alienated and isolated from her family work and that would be the ideal place of magic and fantasy. This song’s lyrics, Dorothy’s expressions, the background environment and the clouds clearly represent her yearning for the search of an ideal place. We can say that this clip, even the entire movie is a great example of special effects and a real fantasy which is even now popular among 21st century youngsters.