what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

DQ 1 A simple decision that I recently made is to learn the life of Picasso. The elements that made me take this decision were even simpler. I appreciate, as a human being,

DQ 1

A simple decision that I recently made is to learn the life of Picasso. The elements that made me take this decision were even simpler. I appreciate, as a human being, the idea of his art, His miracles and the wonders that he created. However, I was left with an interesting question to think about seriously. As a young child, what was Picasso like, how did he live in his adult life? This seems like an easy query that can be addressed. But, my quest for obtaining the answer for this question commenced after the analysis of various pros and cons. I used my critical thinking ability to weigh the pros and cons. I utilized two processes to analyze the life of Picasso as a young boy. I used deductive reasoning to ensure that I was able to gather all necessary information to precede my quest. Deductive reasoning also included lot of scientific thinking in it. I recently purchased a book with the name Life with Picasso, written by Francoise Gilot and Carlton Lake, which guides me to learn and understand the life of Picasso.

 

 

DQ 2

To ensure that the decisions made by us are right, we may examine the steps we took, re-evaluate and estimate all the bases that led us to arrive at the decision made. These checks enable us to gain confidence in the decisions we have made and the thought process that we used to achieve this. Critical thinking does not end after making the decision. It never ends and we must consistently evaluate our progress towards the chosen path and sometimes should reassess the choices made by us. Without this consistent assessment, the decisions we make in our lives may not always turn out to be right, as new challenges may tend to derail our decisions.

Plant Cell Organelles and Their Functions

Plant Cell Organelles and Their Functions

Kimberly Goodwin

Bio/204

January 20, 2014

Amy Sullivan
Plant Cell Organelles and Their Functions

1. What is the interdependent relationship between mitochondria and other organelles?

Although cell-organelles can seem isolated from one another because of things like membrane barriers, there is a close relationship between them. Mitochondria can work as a kind of power house cell considering it uses ATP synthesis which helps in the energy currency of cells. Also other organelles help in mitochondria in maintaining its physical integrity and functionality. One example could be smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum supplies lipids (which are an essential structural element of the mitochondrial membrane) to mitochondria although the nucleus ensures delivery of specific proteins to the mitochondria which can be crucial for this specific organelle for their function and structure.

2. What are similarities and differences between the Golgi apparatus and the large central vacuole?

Vacuoles and Golgi bodies can share many similarities especially in their ability to store different biomolecules. Considering vacuoles can temporarily store a wide range of nutrients and waste material as well as other material for the purpose of transportation. Golgi bodies also store various materials such as lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins which allow these to be directed towards the final destinations. The main difference between these organelles is apparent when looking at the Golgi bodies, they may introduce many different modifications in each entity which is they store. Central vacuole does not share this characteristic.

3. What is the function of chloroplast? Include functions of stroma and grana.

Chloroplasts are what perform photosynthesis in plants. This means they help to synthesis the food in plants using solar energy. Chloroplasts contain thylakoids, these are quite often piled on top of one another. The stacks of thylakoids are known as grana that has many integral and peripheral membrane proteins and the chemicals that are required for the light reactions of photosynthesis which includes chlorophyll. Thylakoids are surrounded by the stroma which means that the inner liquid of the chloroplast which has all of the enzymes is required to secure the reaction known as “dark” in photosynthesis.

4. Explain the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and rough endoplasmic reticulum. How are their functions similar to the nucleus? How are they different?

Rough endoplasmic is essential for protein synthesis while smooth endoplasmic reticulum mostly takes part in the synthesis of lipids. Although there could be key similarities between the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus such as participation in the synthesis of bio-molecules; the nucleus performs this in an indirect manner by sending messages to the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles. Although the endoplasmic reticulum carries out this task itself directly.

5. Provide three unique chemical or physical properties of water. How are these properties useful to water movement in plant cells?

Characteristics of water can be considered extraordinary and can assist in its movement: (a) Water flows from its higher to lower concentration so; can enter from soil into the dry parts of plant. (b) Capillary movement may be shown by water because of which, when one molecule of water moves forward and sticks to a surface (in plant) then it pulls on other water molecules too. (c) Hydrogen bonds may be formed by water molecules that strengthen the linkage between them and thus assist in their movement.

6. Discuss similarities and differences between bulk flow and diffusion. What are driving forces behind each process?

Both diffusion and bulk flow are required for the principle of water movement, but diffusion signifies net progressing down a concentration gradient because of the indiscriminate movement of distinct molecules while, majority flow involves moving the water along with solutes jointly owing to a pressure gradient

7. Describe Fick’s law. How might this law be applied to osmosis? Explain how osmosis is a special case of diffusion.

Fick’s Law states that:

Diffusion α surface area x concentration difference

Distance

This law can also be applied in the case of osmosis since; osmosis is the procedure through which water molecules may diffuse through a semi- permeable membrane from an area that has a higher water capacity to an area that has a lower water capacity or from their higher concentration to lower concentration.

Reference:

http://www.khanacademy.org/science/healthcare-and-medicine/the-lungs/gas_exchange/v/fick-s-law-of-diffusion

8.What role does solute concentration play in osmosis? How does water’s chemical potential influence osmosis? What role do water properties play in diffusion?

The net direction of osmosis depends on relative concentration of solutes present on two sides of membrane. Therefore; if a solution present at one side is hypotonic to solution present at another side of semi-permeable membrane then exo-osmosis would occur and vice-versa. If pure water is in contact with both sides of semi-permeable membrane then there could not be identified net flow of water across the membrane due to equal chemical potential while, if the two sides of membrane reflect variation in “chemical potentials” then Osmotic flow can occur from higher to lower chemical potential until the restoring of equilibrium in terms of chemical potential. Water supports diffusion via providing favorable circumstances for movement of solute molecules that occurs from higher to lower concentration of solute. In fact, rate of diffusion also depends on the medium through which the substance diffuses and water is called an ideal medium for the process.

9. Distinguish between osmotic pressure and potential. What organelle is related to osmotic potential?

Osmotic pressure can be described as the pressure that is applied by a solution to limit the internal flow of water through a semi-permeable membrane. Osmotic potential can be described as the opposite of water potential. This means that the extent that a solvent can have to exist in a liquid. Vacuoles can be closely related with the osmotic potential considering they can accumulate and remove Na+ and Clto balance the osmotic effects.

10. What role do aquaporins play in cell membrane permeability? What controls the gating of aquaporins?

Aquaporins can form tetramers in cell membrane, and may assist in the transportation of water (and other tiny solutes) across the membrane. Their gating might be carried out by an interaction between them and gating mechanism that may lead towards alteration in their 3- dimensional structure and can ultimately block the pore because of which, flow of water by it can be discontinued. For example; in plants such gating is regulated by dephosphorylation of a few particular serine residues in response to drought, and protonation of few definite histidine residues in reply to flooding.

Coral Reef Ecosystem

Coral Reef Ecosystem

Kimberly Goodwin

Bio/101

August 19, 2013

Alison Barrett
Coral Reef Ecosystem

The coral reef is a very diverse and beautiful ecosystem; they have symbiotic and mutual relations with its inhabitantsthat produce biodiversity. Algae and other creatures help to supply the coral with its food, energy, and help it with protection against predators; for this the coral gives these creatures’ the living area they require, and shelter (Simon, 2010). Coral reefs are one of the most unique and richest environments creating biodiversity, they are animal that are attached to the sea floor but are still able to come into contact with the atmosphere that surrounds them.

The coral benefits greatly from the symbiotic relationships with many of the animals in its ecosystem. One of the most important relationships is the ones between the algae and the coral reef. Algae are eukaryotic animals which are very delicate, changes in salt, light and temperature can be devastating.   The algae maintain their lives in the coral using sun to transform their energy into food by the process of photosynthesis. The criteria needed for this relationship to live uniquely limits where and which atmospheres these creatures can live. Coral and algae live in warm waters keeping the temperatures between 77 and 84 degrees Fahrenheit, with these criteria the coral can be very vulnerable to small changes in their atmosphere. Human interactions create a danger to the survival of the coral. Over-fishing, sea front development, and climate changes are a few of the ways that the coral reef is affected. Regardless of these set-backs the coral still helps to supply a wide variety of animals and creatures with a place to live in a very unique and useful ecosystem (Dr. Knowlton & Dr. Cairns, 2013).

Organisms found in the Coral Reef

There are various animals and plants that reside in the Coral Reef. Each organism has an significant role in the ecosystem of the coral reef; this ecosystem has the nickname of being the rainforest of the ocean considering there are a vast amount of organisms that closely relate to those found in a terrestrial rainforest. There are approximately 500 different variations of coral which estimates to represent around a quarter of the identified sea life populations which amazingly still only makes up around one percent of the world’s known ocean life (Global Coral Reef Alliance, 2010). Some of the organisms that can be found in this unique ecosystem are but not limited to: Sea Anemones, Sea Turtles, Puffer fish, Parrot fish butterfly fish and Clown fish. These animals are well developed for this atmosphere and are important contributors to the coral reefs ecosystem. Their existence plays a key role to the biological variety of this ecosystem and they each have a specific role that helps them to successfully live in the coral reef.

Cnidarians, one known creature in this group is known as the sea anemone, which is a common predator in the ocean that disguises itself as a plant. The name Cnidarian comes from the Greek word “Cnidus” this means stinging nettle (Cnidarians, 2002). Other animals included in this group are jellyfish and corals; interestingly enough these creatures have no hard areas to their bodies. The sea anemone has a mouth in the middle of their body and what is known as a basal disk at the other end. The anemones mouth is in the middle of a bunch of stinging tentacles that restrain their prey and also tacky tentacles that snatches the prey. The tentacles move the immobilized prey to its mouth where it is ingested in a bag like hole. Anemones obtain their food source from other animals, but they also like to eat small prawns and other smaller fish. The remains of what the anemone digests are removed back through the mouth. The puffer fish, parrot fish and butterfly fish are some of the more unusual creatures that enjoy the sea anemone (Cnidarians, 2002).

One of the most amazing divers and swimmers would have to be the sea turtle. Sea turtles are cold blooded which helps with their metabolic process; this allows them to remain under water for long periods of time. Unlike tortious turtles limbs do not retract into a portion of their shell. This would take away from their swimming abilities. These turtles are omnivores; they enjoy eating a variety of animals including jellyfish, urchins, sponges and mollusks. The main predators of the sea turtle are sharks. One amazing feature of the sea turtle is their salt gland, this is a gland which helps their bodies eliminate salt so they do not have to find a new water source, and they receive all of their water from their diet and from the sea water. This gland is found in the turtle’s eyes which gives them the appearance that they are always crying, but it has a duel function this also helps to keep sand out of the female turtle’s eyes when she digs her nest (Coral Reef Information, 2012).

Another incredible creature that was once found all over the coral reefs are related to the elephant. Manatees a peaceful giant that can consume vast amounts of sea plant life have become hard to find because of extensive hunting by people, habitat loss, pollution from the coast lines and trouble with fishing nets. In the last few centuries the manatee has been hunted to near extinction, many conservation efforts have been put into place but these gentle giants are still threatened with the possibility of extinction (Coral Reef Information, 2012).

Community Interactions

The future of the coral reef looks dim, due to things such as human interaction and air and water pollution, but one alternative that a group of scientists in Scotland have come up with goes beyond nature into the metallic life of robots. The scientists have concluded that by letting small robots loose on dying reefs to have them transplant healthy specimens in areas that are needed they may be able to bring back the population of the coral reef ecosystem. The challenge to create these coralbots remains mainly because the sophistication of the software would have to be unique to this ecosystem. These coralbots would have to be able to distinguish healthy coral from dying coral and be able to find their way around the ocean floor without incident. One of the keys to promoting coral growth with this community interaction would be how successful the scientists are to program the coralbots with the intelligence to work in whatis known as a swarm. Mimicking animals like bees or a colony of ants working together to complete the task. An article submitted to the New York Times created a lot of controversy when an Australianscientist Roger Bradbury stated that “…it is game over for the world’s coral reefs” (The Smithsonian Institute, Aug). Many scientists have suggested that while the situation may look devastatingly grim that there is still hope to saving this incredible ecosystem, we just have to come up with solutions that benefit this ecosystem instead of solutions that harm it. One study that was published by Stanford states “if carbon emissions stay near where they are now, there will, by the end of the century, be no water left on Earth that has the chemical makeup to support coral growth. The ocean will be too acidic” (The Smithsonian Institute, Aug)

Consumers of the Coral Reef

            In the coral reef ecosystem there a two main consumers; herbivores which are referred to as an animal that only eats or consumes plants and corallivores which are animals that eat and consume coral. The Sea urchin is one of the main herbivores to live in the coral reef they also uniquely move seaweed around by popping them from the rocky areas and moving them to another area. Another herbivore found in the corals are surgeonfish, they feed from the algae in and around the corals. Parrotfish are a unique and needed part of the ecosystem because they consume parts of the coral that have died, but they also eat portions of live coral. Butterfly fish are known for eating the coral polyps, these fish are a remarkable sight and a good asset to the reef because in the reefs these fish are found in have excellent health (Dr. Knowlton & Dr. Cairns, 2013). The fish that populate the reefs along with the herbivores and corallivores are crucial to the ecosystem and are all consumers that aid the coral reef in its existence.

An effective coral reef ecosystem is one where plants and animals correspond with each other and provide each other with the necessary sustenance to maintain their health. The coral reef needs these kinds of community interaction between each variety to stay robust and have continuous growth. The sunlight is one of the most basic origins of energy for the coral reef because they produce photosynthesis, algae and other plants expand on this feature (Dr. Knowlton & Dr. Cairns, 2013). These plants supply the sources of energy that some of the creatures in the coral reef need to nourish themselves. Where sunlight can reach plant life and varieties of plants flourish. Unfortunately, one of the biggest hazards to the coral reef, animals that populate it and the plants that live there are human interactions; when one species dies out from this ecosystem from overfishing, boating, people touching the corals, and contamination (Dr. Knowlton & Dr. Cairns, 2013). If creatures are not able to find their food source they die out which is a vicious cycle that has put the coral reef ecosystem in a fragile place. Until we as humans make an extensive attempt to change this cycle and stop the coral reefs from declining the cycle will continue until this beautiful ecosystem disappears forever.

 

 

References

Cnidarians. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.oceaninn.com/the-nature-preserves/cnidarians

Coral Reef Information. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.coral-reef-info.com/coral-reef-animals.html

Dr. Knowlton, N., & Dr. Cairns, S. (2013). Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from http://www.ocean.si.edu/coral-and-coral-reefs

Global Coral Reef Alliance. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.globalcoral.org/questions_about_coral_reefs.html

Simon, E. J. (2010). Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology (3rd Ed.). Old Tappan, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

The Smithsonian Institute. (Aug 15, 2013). Innovations: How human ingenuity is changing the way we live. Retrieved from http://www.blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2013/08/can-swarming-robots-and-cloud-umbrellas-help-save-coral-reefs/

“Degeneration of the Myelin Sheath is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune process of the central nervous system that affects the brain,

“Degeneration of the Myelin Sheath is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune process of the central nervous system that affects the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve. “ This can lead to a disease known as Multiple Sclerosis or MS. In this method, the immune system damages the covering of the nerves, called the myelin sheath. Subsequently, the sheaths are impaired, the impaired areas create scarring that leads to distorted communication or no communication between the nerve endings.

 

Reference:

http://www.evenbetterhealth.com/multiple-sclerosis.php

When looking at responses to life threatening experiences one system that responds is the human nervous system. Neurons in the hypothalamus become excited which signals an individual to either become aggressive or to run,

When looking at responses to life threatening experiences one system that responds is the human nervous system. Neurons in the hypothalamus become excited which signals an individual to either become aggressive or to run, this is a response known as the fight or flight response. When looking at this reaction or behavior this is known as the defense reaction; defense reactions are typically associated with solid sympathetic activity where aggression is mainly affected by androgen hormone production.

References:

www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/409709/human-nervous-system/75644/The-defense-reaction

This reaction can be looked at in not only humans but animals as well. Cheetahs are known for the fight or flight response mainly because they flee at most instances of conflict. Cheetahs which can be amazing predators reaching speeds of around 70 mph can be chased away from a kill by lurking vultures. What happens with the fight or flight response is there is an original threat perceived such as almost getting hit by a car (for us) or a vulture lurking overhead (for a cheetah) at that point the autonomic nervous system puts the body into what I like to call high alert. In this stage the body or more specifically the adrenal cortex releases a hormone into the bloodstream known as stress hormones which causes the heart to beat faster which also causes your breathing to increase. Your thyroid will then stimulate metabolism and the large muscles in your body will start to receive the oxygenated blood. These responses are all automatic and something that we do not think about doing. Sometimes this response can also trigger what is known as a freeze where the mind cannot decide what to do and freezes up. Some scientists believe the freeze is caused from the brain being overwhelmed with information input while others believe in the animal kingdom that the freeze is adaptive for prey species so that their presence would not be noticed by predators with movement.

Reference:

http://www.livescience.com/22665-nervous-system.html