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The equipment for a sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was arranged in a proper way as well as for every gel. There was the distance of 1mm spacers between the two lead crystal plates. Then, the plastic comb was put in and it was noted that the comb penetration must be noticed. In the next step, detached the comb and other two similar SDS-PAGE determining gels (Table) were equipped and dispensed in in the middle of the glass plates to almost 0.5-1 cm under the lowest of the comb.

2.4 Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

The equipment for a sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was arranged in a proper way as well as for every gel. There was the distance of 1mm spacers between the two lead crystal plates.

Then, the plastic comb was put in and it was noted that the comb penetration must be noticed. In the next step, detached the comb and other two similar SDS-PAGE determining gels (Table) were equipped and dispensed in in the middle of the glass plates to almost 0.5-1 cm under the lowest of the comb. The determining gels were enclosed with iso-propanol and permitted to keep them for at least 10-15 notes. Later the deciding gel was kept, the iso-propanol was discharged and any surplus was moved away by wiping with the help of filter paper. Then it came to make ready the two assembling gels (Table). After it was dispensed on topmost of the regular resolving gels and the plastic comb was introduced for both and then these were kept approximately 15 minutes. Then these were then shifted to the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis tank. This tank was full with SDS-PAGE consecutively buffer (Table). The surplus protein results were combined with the identical size of 2x SDS-PAGE loading buffer (Table) and it was kept at the temperature of 95 °C for further 5 minutes. The resulted removes were simplified in benchtop centrifuge using centrifugation. The time given was 5 minutes at 14,000g and the suitable capacity of supernatant was full with the gel. It is the loading volumes designated for all procedure in Chapter…. . The SDS-PAGE gels were route at 70 mA for an hour. As alternate till the bromophenol blue tracing dye touched the lowermost of the gel.

In the further step, a gel was picked out and then discolored for complete 2 hours in Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 dye (Table) and at that time inSDS-PAGE gel destain (discoloration solution minus Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 stain). The solution was then put subsequently 1 hour. A new destain was poured. Then the gel was kept on an orbital shaker to destain for the whole nighto. The gel was detached since the destain solution in the following morning and reserved in water. It helped to avoid the gel from lack of water or lack of moisture. It was further snapped.

 

9 Chemiluminescent detection

Growth was led by means of the SuperSignal®West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate kit (Pierce). Concisely, peroxide solution(1mL) was dissolved with 1 mL of Iuminol/enhancer solution. It was then pipetted straight over the membrane. It was later kept warm in the black using incubator for 3 minutes. The immunoblots were later got on film using a VersaDoc™ 4000 molecular snapping system (Bio-Rad).

 

 

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The four stages of sexual response according to Master and Johnson (1966) are considered the steps to a happy correlation between the men and the women. One cannot be without the other one, the four phases the both male and female experience in a sexual response cycle are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sexual response cycle refers to the series of physical and emotional changes that occur between two persons as they become sexually aroused and participate in sexually stimulating activities. By knowing how you respond to these cycles your relationship can be improve and help you identify any sexual dysfunction.

 

 

 

 

 

The Sexual Response Cycle

Roberto Castro

PSY-210

March 21, 2010

Professor Dr. Jocelyn Enabulele

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sexual Response Cycle Check-Point

The four stages of sexual response according to Master and Johnson (1966) are considered the steps to a happy correlation between the men and the women. One cannot be without the other one, the four phases the both male and female experience in a sexual response cycle are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sexual response cycle refers to the series of physical and emotional changes that occur between two persons as they become sexually aroused and participate in sexually stimulating activities. By knowing how you respond to these cycles your relationship can be improve and help you identify any sexual dysfunction.

By sexual response, we mean the physical aspect of sexuality; there are many differences between a man and a woman. For both they are certain characteristic that differs from one to the other but in conclusion they both experience the same physiological aspect of sexuality.

Phase 1: Excitement

For men in response to sexual stimuli there is a process call vasocongestion, were more blood flows into the penis than is flowing out, as a result the men get an erection. Also the head gets a purple color, there also changes in the scrotum and testes were they increase in size, the skin become flush, heightened sensitivity in parts of the body, hearth rate increase, blood pressure and muscle tension. In woman they experience vaginal lubrication, vaginal lengthening, swelling of the external and lower third creating an orgasmic platform, breast become fuller, her skin become sensitive to the touch increasing pleasure.

 

 

Phase 2: Plateau

In this phase sexual stimulation correspond to the initial arousal and excitement up until an orgasm. For many men the plateau phase is very short or they can prolong as a way to control an orgasm. Also at this stage our blood pressure increase our breathing become more rapid and heavier, the women’s vagina swells and increase blood flow to further engorge the area. The man’s testicles withdrawn up in the scrotum, muscle spasms may begin in the feet, face and hands, tension in the muscles increase.

Phase 3: Orgasm

On the orgasmic phase in the male consist in two stages of muscular contraction, first seminal fluid is collected in the urethral bulb, this collection is usually felt  as tickling sensation, muscle tense, next the semen is ejaculated from the penis. In women, the vaginal wall contract every eight-tenth of a second this can vary depending on the individual orgasm, the muscle in the uterus also contract. Sometimes orgasm comes with a grasping type of muscular reflex of the hands and feet. Orgasm usually last longer in women than in men, it is normal for a woman to have multiple orgasm during one cycle.

Phase 4: Resolution

This stage is when the body returns to an unaroused state, the men experience the loss of erection as the blood flows out of the penis, the scrotum return to his normal size and the so called refractory period were the man cannot have another orgasm during this time. This can last up to ten minutes of recovery time. Women don’t have a recovery period after orgasm that could impede the start of an immediate, new excitatory cycle, contrary to what happens in males. This way is possible for women to have multiple orgasms.

Changes in Sexual Functioning

They are certain age related changes that affect sexual functioning.  And for many people that want to be close to others as they grow older these changes affect not only the desire to continue an active life but a satisfying sex life as they get older. Normal aging brings physical changes in both men and women and these changes sometime affect the ability to have sex. The woman may notice changes in her vagina, as she gets older her vagina shorten and narrow, they become thinner and a little stiffer. Most women will have less vaginal lubrication affecting sexual function and pleasure. (National Institute of Health, July, 2009) There are many other problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. These are lack of sexual desire, inability to become aroused, lack of orgasm, or sexual climax, or painful intercourse. These problems may have physical or psychological causes. Physical may include conditions like diabetes, heart disease, nerve disorders or hormone problems. Psychological problems may include, work related stress and anxiety, depression, concern about marriage or infidelity, and menopause.

In men impotence also called erectile dysfunction become more common. Erectile dysfunction is the ability to have or keep an erection for sexual intercourse. ED causes the man to take longer to have an erection or may not be as firm or as large as it used to be. (National Institute of Health, July, 2009). In concern with the men erectile dysfunction they are other causes that will affect the sexual relation with their partners. These are heart diseases and their medication, medication for high blood pressure will cause in men erectile dysfunction, diabetes, alcohol and illegal drugs. Stress, anger, depression also can lead to impotence.

 

 

Common Methods of Treatment for Sexual Dysfunction

The treatment for sexual dysfunction has advance in recent years, many companies has come up with treatment for men with ED, medication that recently came to market as a result of many years of study in men with sexual dysfunction. Medication like Sildenafil (Viagara), Tadalafil (Cialis), and Vardenafil (Levitra) has help hundreds of thousands of men with this problem. They are other treatment for men but these three are the most popular. As for women with sexual concerns they have a combined approach of treatment that address their concern, the solution is a medical as well an emotional treatment. On the medical solution per example using vaginal estrogen cream, or estrogen therapy, progestin therapy and androgen therapy; testosterone may be given as a cream or a gel patch or given as a pill or injection.

Also more often behavioral treatments such as couple’s therapy and stress management are needed to address the roots of female and male sexual dysfunction.  A combination of medication and behavioral approach work the best. Physical changes and psychological will required to help most men and women, quit smoking, lose weight, get treatment for alcohol and drug abuse, exercise regularly and work throughout relationships issues, improve communication with your partner and considered couples or marriage counseling.

In conclusion changes in our lives are not necessary the reason to have a healthy sex life, we most considered that under the circumstances we all have to go thru the same. Getting old don’t need to bring our sex life to a halt, our expectation and the willingness to adjust are crucial factor for a happy sexual fulfillment.

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Sexual dysfunction according to the Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is inadequate enjoyment of sex, or complete failure to enjoy any form of sexual intercourse. There may be multiple causes for the lack of sexual interest or desire, impairments in sexual arousal such as erectile dysfunction in men or premature ejaculation or vaginismus or hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in woman. Many cases may be attribute to substance abuse, alcoholism, prescription drugs, hormonal conditions in woman, or may be a case of rape or sexual abuse during childhood. However, other reasons for both men and women having a sexual dysfunction are related to psychological reasons than to sexual dissatisfaction.

 

 

 

 

 

Sexual Dysfunction Check Point

Roberto Castro

PSY-265

04/29/2011

Professor Lisa Nave


Sexual Dysfunction Check Point

Sexual dysfunction according to the Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is inadequate enjoyment of sex, or complete failure to enjoy any form of sexual intercourse. There may be multiple causes for the lack of sexual interest or desire, impairments in sexual arousal such as erectile dysfunction in men or premature ejaculation or vaginismus or hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in woman. Many cases may be attribute to substance abuse, alcoholism, prescription drugs, hormonal conditions in woman, or may be a case of rape or sexual abuse during childhood. However, other reasons for both men and women having a sexual dysfunction are related to psychological reasons than to sexual dissatisfaction.

One of the predominant sexual dysfunction in men is erectile disorder, and it is known as impotence were the men is unable to gain an erection or to keep it. This sexual dysfunction can be cause by physiological or psychological factors or a combination of both. It is also believe that many cases involve organic or substance induced impairment of the erection response. Medication used to control blood pressure, diabetes, high levels of cholesterol may have an influence; also nerve damage, alcoholism, drug abuse, tobacco, multiple sclerosis, kidney failure, radiation therapy, and vascular problems (Myer, 1986).

Psychological factors for erectile dysfunction can be extremely complicated, any personal or interpersonal factor can contribute to an erectile dysfunction. Master & Johnson (1966, 1970) emphasized “Once the man begins to experience erectile problems, for whatever reason he begins to become anxious about failing to have an erection, and his focus during sexual encounters centre’s in his penis performance. By focusing undue attention on performance he inadvertently distances himself from the sexual experience adopting a spectator role and thus is unable to simply relax and enjoy the sensations of sexual pleasure resulting in anxiety and failure.”

The treatment for erectile dysfunction involved physical, psychological intervention and in many cases recent drugs that help man to achieve or maintain an erection like Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra, other treatment like vacuum constriction, penile prosthesis or injections are available too for those with more complex dysfunction.

We have mentioned the most common dysfunction in men, in women’s are many form of sexual dysfunctions. Female sexual dysfunction is the absence of orgasm after a period of normal sexual excitement and most causes are mark by distress and discomfort before or during the sexual encounter. One of the most common examples in women’s sexual dysfunction is vaginismus and the symptoms are recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the vaginal muscles that interfere with sexual intercourse. There is a relationship of this disorder with rape and sexual abuse, strict religious upbringing and issues of control. However, most causes of female sexual dysfunction may be to complication of alcohol, anxiety, depression, illness, negative body perception, distraction, and stress.

Other concepts known as a vascular, hormonal such as estrogen caused by aging, menopause or hysterectomy can also diminish sexual desire, lack of sexual fantasies. Treatments for this related dysfunction are:

  1. Education on female anatomy, arousal and response; where blood flow, hormone levels, and sexual anatomy are normal.
  2. Hormone replacement therapy.
  3. Vascular treatment. Some evidence of the medication Sildenafil (Viagra) has been found to restore libido lost to antidepressants and other medications.
  4. Lubricants and creams to assist in sensitiveness and increase orgasm in both men and woman.

In conclusion, most of the sexual dysfunctions and disorder in both men and woman are related to stressful situation in their lives or a physiological condition cause by themselves. Whether drug abuse, alcoholism, or medication use to prevent a disease like diabetes, high blood pressure,  or relationship factors, psychiatric co-morbidity like depression, anxiety, poor body image, or a cultural-religious factor have an effect in the positive sexual functioning for both men and women alike.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistician’s Manual 4th Edition

American Psychiatric Association (2011) Proposed DSM-V Revision

http://www.dsm5.org/Proposed/Revision/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=172

Master W. H.; Johnson V. E. (1966) Human Sexual Response. Bantam Books ISBN

0-553-20429-7 New York.

Master W. H.; Johnson V. E. (1970) Human Sexual Inadequacy. Bantam Books 0-553-20699-0

New York.

Myer, D. M. (1986) Psychology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Discuss an environmental problem that you feel is significant in your town or city. What are some of the causes? Are any of these causes related to human values and environmental ethics? Explain your answers.

 

 

 

 

 

Local Environmental Issue Check-Point

Roberto Castro

SCI-275

Professor David Jones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discuss an environmental problem that you feel is significant in your town or city. What are some of the causes? Are any of these causes related to human values and environmental ethics? Explain your answers.

Two of the main environmental concern that I have here in Florida is the pollution of the waters and the raising of temperatures. Since I have moved here I have notice a more trending raise in temperature and the level of quality in the water has diminish. During the 1980’s we never saw that many storm hit Florida has we have seeing during recent years. We can say that global warming is the cause and the raising pollution cause by the released of carbon dioxide into the air by the big energy companies located here in Florida. In 2007 Florida ranks 3rd nationwide for most pollution from power plants, the Environmental Protection Agency has considered regulating these power plants but they still continue using the dirties of all fuel to produce electricity and that is the burning of coal. The other issue is the quality of water; the released of chemicals, pesticides, oils and paints, detergents, and the run off of farms has cause the quality of the water to change. In recent years they have to put a halt to the waist of water to help control the lost of water from Lake Okeechobee.

All of these and much more are related to the loss of human values and environmental ethics of big corporation that won’t stop in the pursuit of making more money for their pockets. In recent years I saw a picture of what Florida will look in 25 years if the melting ice caps and glaciers continue to disappear. It is overwhelmed just to look at it, Florida like hundred of small islands will actually disappear.

 

 

 

 

Photo from Google.com

This is a picture of Florida in 25 years.

If we don’t do something to protect our environment these are the result. Changing our behavior toward a better place to live not only will help the environment for us but for our children too. There is probably not much to explain the pictures explain everything, we want to live in a clean and prosperous planet if we take care of it our children and grandchildren will thank us later.

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The United States is not like any other country in the world; the freedoms experience here and education surpass any other country. People come here to the United States looking to live the American dream but sometimes become a nightmare. For many people to express themselves when they do not speak the language is very difficult. The language barrier is one of the causes, the English language is difficult for some people to learn and others don’t make the effort to learn.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Languages of United States

Roberto Castro

Professor Jaylinn Elliott

Com-150

February 2, 2010

 

 

 

 

The United States is not like any other country in the world; the freedoms experience here and education surpass any other country. People come here to the United States looking to live the American dream but sometimes become a nightmare. For many people to express themselves when they do not speak the language is very difficult. The language barrier is one of the causes, the English language is difficult for some people to learn and others don’t make the effort to learn.

The United States has the biggest diversity of languages than any other country in particular. Even when English wasn’t the original language here because of the native living in the land and most people coming to the new world; English and Spanish were the predominant languages at the time and today both languages still the dominant language spoken. Also Spanish since 1970 is the language widely taught in most colleges and universities across the country (ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 35, 2-3). English has never been the official language for the past two hundred years so why change now?  For this country is beneficial having multiple languages because helps preserve the diversity and culture identity.

The Census of 2000 shows that English is not the only language spoken in United States, there is about 200 languages including the American Native Indian. Also there is the fact that English is taught in schools from pre-schools to high schools in every states.

 

 

 

 

English wasn’t established as a language until the six or Seven Century A.C.  During the first years of colonization of the New World the Spanish were the first to set foot in what is call today Florida. Spanish conquistadores came and colonize parts of the territory of Florida, Mexico, Texas, New Mexico and, California. They were other that came and set colonies like the French, German and, England in the 1600 A.C. but the Spaniards were here before them.

Early natives that live in the U.S. had different languages and communicate to each other in many ways.  Today they still around 150 tribes that had kept their language alive even they all have being assimilated into the American culture.

Many Indian tribes disappeared or were assimilated by other tribes; many of them also were killed in the process of repatriation of their land. During the 1990 Census the count of American native was evidently surprising a little more of 1.9 million and most of them still practice their original language. The biggest of all tribes is the Cherokee with 308,000 and the Navajos with 219,000 (USA Department of Commerce Census 1990). Evidently all this tribes have English as the primary language but they still practice their native languages as an important way to keep their cultures. The most common languages that are still are used by the Native American are:

(USA Department of Commerce Census 2000)

1)      Cherokee

2)      Navajo

3)      Dakota

4)      Western Apache

5)      Alaskan Yupik

6)      Piman

7)      Choctaw

8)      Keres

9)      Zuni

10)  Ojibwe

English has not been established as the official language of the United States but has been the predominant language for more than 200 years. Many Americans assume that English is the official language of the United States, but is not. Nowhere in the Constitution is English privileged over other languages, and no federal law has established English as the language of the land. For generations English has been taught from family to family for those that are born here. But for the large contingency of people that have immigrated to the United States second language has been an issue if they should keep it or not. Even today kids born from American families are required to learn English and they start as early pre-schools grades were the being taught their A,B,C’s. According to the 2000 Census there are 262.4 millions habitants in the United States over the age of five, 47 million of them reported speaking a language other than English, 29.1 million of those reported speaking Spanish making it the second spoken language (USA Department of Commerce Census 2000). A survey of state education found that, in 2001 more than four million students with limited proficiency in English were enrolled across the nation, making up ten percent of the total pre-k through 12th grade public school enrollment (Kindler, 2002).

Another survey done by the Bank Street College of Education in New York City, they predict that by the year 2010, over thirty percent of all school age children will come from homes in which the primary language is not English. They also said that most of the immigrants come from a wide variety of ethnic background, from different economic situation and may have come this country for a variety of reasons; they all have in common the desire to learn English. (www.bnkst.edu/literacyguide/ell.html)

 

There is also the fact that 40 percent of American household that speak only English is learning a second language as part of their work, community service, armed forces or, missionary church trips to other countries. They are some people that want to change the laws on whether English should be the official language and only English being taught in schools and only used at work. They are some states that have make legislation in whether pass this law other simply had ignored it. Like any other law that required approval by the majority of people this one has simply stop in their track. People in both aisles has approved and disapproved because it is unconstitutional. This legislation has being call H.R 997- The English Language Unity Act of 2009 it is mostly a biased form of eliminating any other language that is not English including the native American languages that still exist today. Here are some of the things that will disappear if this piece of legislation is approved. They will be written in English only.

  1. Translators in public hospitals and courts
  2. 911 emergency service
  3. Voting material, instruction and ballots
  4. Court reporters and other legal services
  5. Bilingual education in public schools
  6. Schools materials, parents conferences, reports cards
  7. Drivers licenses regulation and examinations
  8. Non English radio and television broadcasting
  9. Non English holding in public libraries
  10. Streets sings, park names, commemorative naming of public sites
  11. Directory assistance
  12. Tourist information
  13. Bus and train schedule and sings
  14. General advertising, business sings, billboards, menus ( Zall; Crawford 1989, EPIC Events,1988, both issues)

The real agenda for altering the US Constitution and making English the national language is the protection of English language but in reality the organization behind this amendment is purging the government of foreign language use. Beardsmore and Willemyns (1986, 21) have suggested that the ELA is “making something far more fundamental and that languages is being used as scapegoats”

 

There also the fact that more Americans are studying other languages other than Spanish. According to a survey in 2002, more college students sign up for classes other than Spanish. And also in a search for jobs most of all application asks if you know any other language. Spanish continues to be the most popular language taught in American colleges and universities across the country, but enrollments in French, German, Italian, Japanese and, Chinese have grow.

Other languages that are being taught and getting popular with college students are Shawili, Persian, Hawai’ian, Polish, Arabic, and Vietnamese (ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 35. 2-3(Winter- Spring 2004).

 

In conclusion even that English is the predominant language of the United States they are more languages spoken here than any other country outside the United States. China will be the second largest nation but Chinese and Mandarin are the common languages. Europe with all the diversity of languages like French, German, Italy, Sweden and, other nations they all speak English. Even Saudi Arabia, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Spain and Portugal have English teach at their schools. English has come to be the universal language he is spoken in more than 200 countries.

People will continue seek the American dream and will do anything to live here and when that happened they will bring their culture and their language with them. With each new family coming here it still the American unending process. Every time we hear someone speaking in other language and feel so good to listen we know that we are in America the land of freedom. The land were culture diversity is so acceptable that creates a complete unity is not found in any other place in the world.

 

 

 

It is imperative not to lose our culture or language like other has in the past. Rodger Doyle (Scientific American March 1998) once he say and quote in part “Speakers of minority languages have been forcibly relocated and combined with speakers of other languages, as happened when Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves. Practices such as these have made Native American languages the most imperiled of any on the earth. The death of languages is not only a tragedy for those directly involved but also an irretrievable cultural loss for the rest of the world. Through language, each culture expresses a unique worldview. Thus, any effort to preserve linguistic variety implies a deep respect for the positive values of other culture.” This will be the legacy of the United States if we change to only one language as they have try in many occasions. Not only America will lose his diversity but all the culture expectation that exist in this country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Adams, Karen L, Brink Daniel T. (1990) Perspective on official English: The campaign for

English as the official language of USA

Association of Department of Foreign Languages (2004) bulletin Vol. 35. 2-3

(Spring- Winter)

Bank Street College of Education (2009) www.bnkst.edu/litteracyguide/html

Census 2000 Gateway.  www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html

Daniels, Harvey. (1990) Not only English: Affirming America’s Multilingual Heritage

Subjects: Language Policy- United States, English language-Political aspect,

English-only Movement.

Kindler, A. L. (2002) Surveys of the States Limited English Proficient Students and Available

Program and Services, 2001-2002 Summary Report

U.S. Department of Commerce Census 1990 Native American Tribes Population

U.S. Department of Commerce Census 2000 Native American Languages

Wiley, Terrence G. (1997) Myths About language Diversity and Literacy in the United States

 

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Famous poets wrote and quote “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddle masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tots’ to me; I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”(Emma Lazarus, 1883). The United States is considered the land of freedom were for hundred of year people has come looking to lived the American dream. They come for the freedom, jobs, and in many cases to practice their religion without been persecuted. But the immigration issue has cost this nation a lot to be concern and now the fragile balance to support immigration to this country has been compromised.

 

 

 

 

 

Is Illegal Immigration the cause of all Economic Problems in USA?

Roberto Castro

COM-220

April 11, 2010

Professor William Taylor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Famous poets wrote and quote “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddle masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tots’ to me; I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”(Emma Lazarus, 1883). The United States is considered the land of freedom were for hundred of year people has come looking to lived the American dream. They come for the freedom, jobs, and in many cases to practice their religion without been persecuted. But the immigration issue has cost this nation a lot to be concern and now the fragile balance to support immigration to this country has been compromised. Since the attacks of 9/11 many people feel that our borders need to be secure and that many illegal immigrants need to be deal in a promptly manner. Many studies have being made but one in particular has made me look at this issue very closely because not all illegal immigrants are here to displace American from their jobs. Studies made by the Center for Immigration Studies and Steven Camarota stating that illegal immigrants create a drain in the US government, illegal immigrants are not the only cause but major companies moving to other countries to make more profits and escape from paying taxes and retirement benefits, leaving hundreds of American without jobs. Illegal immigrants only work in those jobs most American don’t want and since the signing of the law in 1996 most illegal immigrants cant receive any benefits like food stamps or Medicaid for them or their families. Recent studies made by the Department of Homeland Security Office found that illegal immigrants’ population has drop from 11.8 million in January 2008 to 10.6 million in January 2009 (DHS Population Estimate, January, 2009).

Statistic shows the decrease in illegal immigrants by a study done by Homeland Security Office. The figures from 2001 to 2004 are not available due to the 9/11 action and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Between 2000 and 2007, the unauthorized population grew by 27 percent. Of all unauthorized immigrants living in the United States in 2007, 63 percent entered before 2000, and 62 percent were from Mexico.

 

 

 

The decrease in the size of the unauthorized population between 2008 and 2009 is not likely due to sample error said the DHS but more likely the stiffest laws pass by the Congress and Immigration Office to companies that hire illegal immigrants and more security in our borders. According to the Annual Report of 2008, the DHS immigration enforcement has apprehended 792,000 foreign nationals; 88 percent were natives of Mexico, 359,000 aliens were removed and 811,000 accepted an offer to return to their countries without removal orders, and 97,000 known criminals were also removed from United States.

 

Many concerns from Americans about illegal immigrants are that they are draining public services like food stamp, welfare, health care and schools funding.  Steven Camarota director of research for the Center for Immigration Studies assert “that illegal aliens imposed more than 26.3 billion dollars in cost in federal government in 2002 and paid only 16 billion in taxes creating a fiscal deficit of 10.4 billion in programs like Medicaid, Women, infant and Children food program, and federal aid to schools lunches, (1.9 billion); the federal court and prison system (1.6 billion), and federal aid to schools (1.4 billion)” (Illegal Immigrants Create a Drain on US Government, 2007 Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center).

Now the question is; how is that Steven Camarota has come with these figures if in 1996 the Congress passes a law reforming Welfare? In 1996 welfare reform bill disqualified illegal immigrants from nearly all means-tested government programs including food stamp, housing assistance, Medicaid and Medicare funded hospitalization. The only services illegal can still get are emergency care and K-12 education. (The Library of Congress, HR 3734 Sec.401-411 Welfare Reform Act, 1996). Also there is the fact that illegal immigrant paid taxes in many ways, experts agree that at the time of collecting taxes the IRS collets more than 18 billion dollars from workers with little probabilities of claiming a refund and no hope of claiming a Social Security check. According to Mark Hinkle spokesmen from the Social Security Office says “The office estimates that for 2005, the agency paid nine billion dollars on 75 billion in wages receive from people that filled W-2 forms with incorrect or mismatch data which will  include illegal immigrants that drew paychecks under fake names and Social Security numbers. But that nine billion dollars sound like a lot of money and it is, but is only 1.5 percent of the total 593 billion paid into Social Security in 2005” (Many Illegal Immigrants Pay up at Tax Time by Travis Loller, USA Today Feb 25, 2010).

Now let’s talk about Unemployment figures; The Center for Immigration Studies says that illegal immigrants are taking jobs from American citizens, it is probably true but the facts are different today than 15 years ago. Statistic shows that unemployment is higher among legally working immigrants than American citizens. Steve Camarota states that immigrants have been hit somewhat harder by the current recession than have native-born Americans. Immigrants on both sides legally and illegally now have a significantly higher unemployment rate than natives.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another way to look at the recession is to examine the number of people holding jobs. Tables 1 and 2 report this information. Since the third quarter of 2007 the number of working immigrants declined 2.1 million, or 9 percent. Among natives the decline in the number working was about 4.5 million, or 3.7 percent. This adds further support to the idea that immigrants are being hit harder by the recession than are natives. Figure 1 reports this information graphically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the above analysis we compared the third quarter of 2007 to the current quarter. If one wishes to compare unemployment rates in other quarters, Table 4 provides employment statistics by educational attainment for every quarter since the third quarter of 2007. Figure 2 is a graphical representation of unemployment rates of immigrants and natives going back to the beginning of 2005.

 

 

 

 

These figures don’t count the actual illegal immigrants that are without jobs not only by the recession but also the strictly laws pass by the Homeland Security Office to those companies that use to hire illegal immigrants.

The reason for the economy meltdown is not cause by illegal immigrants like many people want to portrayed about them, but big corporations that have desire to moved their companies abroad to escape paying taxes, benefits and compensation to the American workers. One of the biggest unions of United States, the AFL-CIO state in one of their issues “Policymakers must reform policies that encourage and reward jobs destruction and implement new policies that will create good jobs for the future. While no single policy measure provides a magic bullet for stopping job loss, a dramatic re-orientation of US policy that removes incentives for shipping jobs offshore, while fostering healthy conditions at home for job creation. Will go a long way towards building more balance global economy that works for the American families”. (www.afl-cio.org/issues/jobseconomy/exportingamerica/outsourcing_solution.cfm)

These have been the issue since the implementation of the NAFTA, many corporation before and after had outsource jobs to Japan, China, Mexico, Philippines and other countries with the benefits of making lots of profits. Now they have other reason to moved complete corporation abroad and that is to avoid paying taxes, benefits, retirement plans and to break companies unions.

Ten big corporations that have moved their headquarters abroad to pay less US taxes.

a)      Halliburton a Houston base company once led by Vice-President Dick Cheney relocates to Saudi Arabia in March, 2007.

b)      Accenture a former Big Five accounting firm moved to Bermuda.

c)      Foster Wheeler engineering company moved to Bermuda.

d)     Ingersoll-Rand Co. LTD moved to Bermuda.

e)      Tyco International LTD provider of health care faced IRS audit moved to Bermuda.

f)       Cooper Industries electrical products and tools moved to Bermuda.

g)      Noble Drilling Service Inc. one of the largest companies in offshore drilling moved to Cayman Island.

h)      Global Crossing telecommunication provider moved to Bermuda.

i)        Seagate Technology LLC designer and manufacturer rank number nine in PC World’s moved to Cayman Island.

j)        Nabors Industries LTD word biggest offshore drilling company moved from Texas to Bermuda and Barbados, Nabor Industries report a 428.4 million in profit in the US and would have paid 86 million in taxes.

All this companies when moving they left a total of 53,000 people unemployed and without benefits. They have made a total of combine profit of 1.6 trillion dollar and have not paid a cent in USA taxes. According to Douglas McIntyre, editor at 247wallst.com said “In a tough economy, the income tax burden on individuals becomes more of a weight. Add the payments to higher gas prices, mortgages that are being reset at lofty levels and rising food cost and the results can be awful. But at least corporation are paying income taxes to carry part of the burden running the federal government, right? Wrong as the New York Times writes, “Two out of every three United State corporation paid no federal income taxes from 1998 through 2005, according to a report released by the Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of the Congress”.

 

Many people including the Center for Immigration Studies have portrayed the illegal immigrants as the cause for the economic troubles in the United States. But the reason behind our economic problems goes far beyond the issue of immigrants either is here legally or illegally, the facts are there both are suffering the same economic trouble American-native is suffering. The issue here is that Congress should pass a law that will reform the existing laws that required big corporation to pay their taxes even if they moved their companies abroad. Also provide American employees and those immigrants that are legally here for work protection if the corporation wants to moved and eliminate jobs here. The other issue is the illegal immigrants that are already here and have families in United States, to give them the opportunity to stay as long the complied with the new immigration reforms that they will not bring any family from their country. The bottom line is that illegal immigrants has contribute in many ways to the American economic, they work low-paying physically demanding jobs that many American (though not all would rather not do) would otherwise be outsource altogether.  And by doing so, they will make money for innumerable tax-paying US corporations and determined the cost of good and service for every American. Finally there are too many variables to establish the exact financial impact of illegal immigration in the United States. But one issue is certain, that without determine how much, will prove costly for all.

 

 

 

References

AFL-CIO (2/18/2010). America’s Union Movement, Exporting America

       http://www.aflcio.org/issue/jobseconomy/exportingamerica/outsourcing_solution.cfm

Camarota Steve. Center for Immigration Studies; Welfare use by Immigrants-and Native         

    Headed-household with Children (2/10/2010).

Trends in Immigration and Native Employment (May, 2009).

http://www.cis.org/Camarota/WelfareUseByImmigrants

Homeland Security Office, Population Estimates: Estimates of Unauthorized Immigrants

      Population residing in the United States: January 2009. By Michael Hoefer, Nancy Rytina

and Brian C. Baker.

Annual Report; Immigration Enforcement Actions: 2008

      http://www.homelandsecurityoffice.com

Haugen David M. Illegal Immigrants do not Drain Public Services; Press 2008. Opposing

     Viewpoint Resources.

Haerens Margaret. Illegal Immigrants do not Harm America’s Economy; Press 2006.

   Opposing Viewpoint Resources.

 

    Miller Debra A. Illegal Immigrants Create a Drain on the U.S. Press 2007. Opposing

   Viewpoint Resources.

   McIntyre Douglas A. Companies that don’t pay taxes and it is most of them.

www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/13/companies Internal Revenue Service.

Loller Travis. Many Illegal Immigrants pay up at tax time; USA Today 2/25/2010.

http://usatoday.com/Many-illegal-immigrant

Library of Congress: HR3734 Sec. 401-411 Aliens who are not qualified, Aliens ineligibility                  

   For Federal Benefits (1996).

Words Editors HR; (6/4/2008) 10 Big Business that have Moved their Headquarters Abroad to

   Pay Less U.S. Taxes

   http://www.hrword.com/features/10-overseas-companies-060408

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                        

What is the main point of this paper?  

The main point of this paper is illegal immigration and the cause of economic problems in the USA.

 

 

 

 

What is the greatest strength of this paper?  

Steven Camarota’s comment about immigrants draining the government.

 

 

 

What material does not seem to fit the main point of the paper or does not seem to be appropriate for the audience?  

It is all appropriate.

 

 

 

Has the author sufficiently addressed counterarguments? Explain your answer. Yes, the author used citations and parenthesis.

 

 

 

 

Where should the author add more details or examples? Explain your answer. The author does not need to add any more details.

 

 

 

 

Where is the writing unclear or vague? The writing is not unclear or vague except for a few misspelled words.

 

 

 

 

What is your favorite part of this piece of writing? The introduction

 

 

 

 

What other comments can you provide for the author? The author should pay closer attention to his or her wording and spelling, other than these problems it is a good paper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

These is an ethnic group that I had choose to determine how much discrimination, prejudice, segregation, and racism we have endure during the last 200 years. From the Spanish colony in Florida, the Mexican, the Tejanos, and those Native American leaving in the south and southwest of North America. During the past nine years the Latino population here in United States has been targeted as the blame for most of the social and economic troubles this nation is facing especially the concern on illegal immigration. For those that are been here legally or born during their families visiting this nation they also are been targeted, such prejudice is not only the beginning because the people that are seeking the removal of all illegal immigrants want also the removal of all of those that were born here from fathers that were here illegally.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Roberto Castro

ETH-125

Professor Sylvia Gonzalez

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Latino in America

These is an ethnic group that I had choose to determine how much discrimination, prejudice, segregation, and racism we have endure during the last 200 years. From the Spanish colony in Florida, the Mexican, the Tejanos, and those Native American leaving in the south and southwest of North America. During the past nine years the Latino population here in United States has been targeted as the blame for most of the social and economic troubles this nation is facing especially the concern on illegal immigration. For those that are been here legally or born during their families visiting this nation they also are been targeted, such prejudice is not only the beginning because the people that are seeking the removal of all illegal immigrants want also the removal of all of those that were born here from fathers that were here illegally.

New laws like the one in Arizona, and Virginia that gives more authority to police officers to stop any one he or she considered suspicious of been here illegally is only the reason for so many to be up in arms and protest such discriminatory law. But we need to start from the beginning since discrimination start in this country with the Latino population. According to the history we were here first including the Native Americans, after a serious of battles with the Indians the white American confiscate the land own by the Indians. After that settler start to occupy what in that time was the land of Mexico, we are talking about Texas, California, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico and Arizona. A brief war between the two nations in 1830’s and United States being the winner cause the succession of the land to United States from Mexico. Once the land was in Americans hand the cruel treatment and discrimination of those living in this country starts. According to Roberto E. Villarreal from the Latino Empowerment there were two major factors involved in the dispossessed of the land for the Latinos living there and a Native Indian too. “First, the bulk of Mexican resident in the southwestern United States had limited preparation in defending what was a shift in their subjugation from the Mexican to the United States and political jurisdiction” in other words the majority of residents affected were peasant farmers with neither the power to actively resist or the knowledge of the new legal and political system under which they found themselves” (Latino Empowerment, Progress, Problem and Prospect; 1998).

Second, the Mexican had one year to decide to become citizen of the United States, or they will become citizen by default. Many families were forced to abandon their homes and flee to Mexico; many came with their deeds of the land they use to own to find that were considered invalid and all of them were written in Spanish and were discard by the American.

 

Now discrimination and racism is not the only problem most Latinos has endure in the last 200 years, illegal immigrants and those that are here legally have become tied by the public to almost every social problem in the nations. “We have become the scapegoat for unemployment; labeled as drug runners and, especially since September 11. 2001, terrorist. Yet the vital economic and cultural contributions to the United States are generally overlooked, as it has been for more than a hundred years” (Racial and Ethnic Groups, Richard T. Schaefer 2006).

Civil rights advocates have expressed concern that many of the procedures used to apprehend and deport are discriminatory and deprive many of their legal rights. Also laws like the one pass by the state of Arizona will make difficult for legal residents to find work because employers wrongly believe that their documents are forged. Many children will stop from going to schools for being afraid of been caught and send back to their native country without their family know where they are.

Now discrimination doesn’t end there, the continuation of discrimination is felt by many Latinos in all sources of life. Either is at work or looking for work, buying a home or a car, going to school or just going to the hospital there is so many ways to be discriminated. The following forms of discrimination are some of the reason why:

  1. Institutional discrimination; this type of discrimination still one of the causes where Latinos are discriminate. Housing discrimination, banks refusing to give credits, hiring practices from some governmental offices.
  2. Redlining; is the pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods.
  3. Double jeopardy; refers to the combination of two subordinate statuses defined as experienced by women of color.
  4. Glass ceiling, glass walls, or glass escalator; the barrier that blocks a qualified worker from getting a promotion because of gender or minority membership.
  5. Reverse discrimination; when a minority group blocks another minority group from getting a promotion that is qualified for.

In conclusion I identified myself as a Latino but also I am American. I cannot comprehend why such much of discrimination against an ethnic group that the only thing they want to do is to reach the American dream. To help their family find education and to live a normal live that is the only thing they want. According to the Homeland Security Office in 2008 they have approximately 11.8 million illegal immigrants and that by 2009 that number has drop to 10.6 millions.

The decrease in the size of the unauthorized population between 2008 and 2009 is not likely due to sample error said the DHS but more likely the stiffest laws pass by the Congress and Immigration Office to companies that hire illegal immigrants and more security in our borders. According to the Annual Report of 2008, the DHS immigration enforcement has apprehended 792,000 foreign nationals; 88 percent were natives of Mexico, 359,000 aliens were removed and 811,000 accepted an offer to return to their countries without removal orders, and 97,000 known criminals were also removed from United States.

So for such laws to be passed in order to protect the citizen of Arizona is discriminatory and racist because according to history we were here first.

 

References

Hispanic-American Experience, Fort Gordon Equal Opportunity Office, 2010.

www.gordon.army.mil/eoo/hispanic.htm

Forty Years after the passage of the fair housing Act, Housing Discrimination and Segregation Continue by John Logan.

www.civilrights.org/publication/reports/fairhousing/forty-years.html

Racial and Ethnic Groups 10th edition 2006.

Homeland Security Office, Population Estimates: Estimates of Unauthorized Immigrants

      Population residing in the United States: January 2009. By Michael Hoefer, Nancy Rytina

and Brian C. Baker.

Annual Report; Immigration Enforcement Actions: 2008

      http://www.homelandsecurityoffice.com

Latino Empowerment Progress, Problem and Prospect. 1998, by Roberto E. Villarreal, Norma Hernandez, Howard Neighbor.

Environment Injustices and Political Struggles 1998, Roberto E. Villarreal.

Latinos Here Sound Off Over U.S. Immigration Crackdown. Teresa Puente 1997 University of Phoenix Library Pro Quest.

 

 

0

1. They are three stages that can cause problems of adaptation if the stress persists long enough. The first one normally is a reaction, when we are in the face of danger or a situation that made our brain to react and send signal to part of our body to work faster. Is either in a defense mode to fight or to flee away from danger. The second stage is resistance when want to keep fighting the situation that has put you in danger, and third is the exhaustion stage is when you are in no way to continue fighting resulting in a feeling of helplessness.

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of Stress Check-Point

Roberto Castro

PSY-210

March 4, 2010

Professor Dr. Jocelyn Enabulele

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of Stress Check-Point
Answer each of the following questions in 50-70 words

  1. They are three stages that can cause problems of adaptation if the stress persists long enough. The first one normally is a reaction, when we are in the face of danger or a situation that made our brain to react and send signal to part of our body to work faster. Is either in a defense mode to fight or to flee away from danger. The second stage is resistance when want to keep fighting the situation that has put you in danger, and third  is the exhaustion stage is when you are in no way to continue fighting resulting in a feeling of helplessness.
  2. Some of the effect of cognitive and emotional stress is depression, anxiety, and anger; those symptoms can be cause by either positive or negative life events such are divorce, death, new jobs, new house or new baby that required you to adapt to these changes in your life. These stress results when pressure challenges or demands are contrary of your expectation and abilities and can be manifested in emotional, physical or behavioral symptoms.
  3. If stress continues you may find that some part of your body that are not working properly, tension, muscle ache, chronic fatigue, headaches. Your blood pressure get out control and most of the cases coronary heart disease, sugar levels tend to increase and in many cases people tend to solve their problems with alcohol and drugs making in worst their condition and getting longer to get well.
  4. Some situation will be hard to change but you can learn ways to dealt with the cause of stress you are under. There are several things you can do to decrease the impact of stress in your life. By managing your time better can reduces stress by creating a balance between stressful experience and pleasure experiences. It is important to become aware or your thoughts and attitude when confronting or start to feel stressed, relaxed, exercise, improved your physical behavioral and emotional response to stress. Develop a network or associated with a network of social support and adopt a good self care habits, stop alcohol and drugs use seek help for these ones.

Managing stress is the ability to maintain control when situation, people and events makes excessive demands; we need to do changes in our lives and recognized that sometimes we cannot do it by ourselves and that we need help. Could be either physiological, group therapy, or social you must seek some help.
To manage you stress needs to have a strategies; first look around see if there something you can change or take control in the situation, second, set realistic goals for yourself reduce the number of events in your life to reduce overload, third, removed yourself from stressful situation give yourself a break. four, don’t overwhelm yourself about your entire workload, handle each task as it come, fifth, learn how to relax meditation and breathing exercise have proven been effective. Avoid extreme reaction and places where you know they generate anxiety and nervous response.

 

 

0

Critical Thinking and Sexual Decision Making

 

 

 

 

 

Critical Thinking and Sexual Decision Making

Roberto Castro

PSY-265

04/15/2011

Professor Lisa Nave


Critical Thinking and Sexual Decision Making

When it comes to sexual decision making I, probably will be the wrong person to ask. I lived a very liberal life even when in the beginning my parents were very strict when comes to sexually explicit issues. My mom was a hardcore Jehovah Witnesses and my father was an atheist, and my four brothers and one sister grow in an environment where we have to do what we have to do to conform along with my mom religion. It wasn’t until I, move out of my house to live by myself in my own apartment and start dating, critical thinking about sex was not in my head at that time it was in the 70’s when disco fever, rock and roll, and expend a night with a beautiful woman was the only thing I have in my head other than work.

It was in 1978 that I meet my wife Nancy ever since that day we have been together for a total of 33 years so far. However, during the 80’s and 90’s I, did have experience the opportunity to be involved in other relationships but then the critical thinking start kicking in, those were the years where HIV was more popular and for me losing my wife and my kids to a diseases without a cure made me think twice before the mistake. Many of my friends died to complications of HIV and that was all I need to maintain myself faithful to my wife.

Today I, work as a Christian counselor helping families broken up by unfaithfulness, drug abuse, alcoholism, and domestic violence. I think it is very important to teach these issue of critical thinking, people does not understand how important it is when comes to the issues of making decision that will affect their lives and those who are around them especially when the issues has to do with been faithful to your spouse.

 

0

Psychological disorders do not affect a certain age, gender, or social class. Psychological disorders are equal opportunist. Certain people may be predisposed to psychological disorders however; many people with no genetic basis are diagnosed daily. Tom is a family man who works diligently to provide for his wife and three children. On the outside looking in one would never guess Tom is overflowing with anxiety. Toms’ worries seem to take over his body often making it hard to concentrate. Mary lives a far different life from Tom. She is a single mother who lives a decent life free from drugs and alcohol, yet she has been battling insomnia for months. Mary and Tom are two individuals diagnosed with psychological disorders, though the lifestyles they have chosen do not raise any flags.

Analyzing Psychological Disorders

By wendy halverstadt

Psychological disorders do not affect a certain age, gender, or social class. Psychological disorders are equal opportunist. Certain people may be predisposed to psychological disorders however; many people with no genetic basis are diagnosed daily. Tom is a family man who works diligently to provide for his wife and three children. On the outside looking in one would never guess Tom is overflowing with anxiety. Toms’ worries seem to take over his body often making it hard to concentrate. Mary lives a far different life from Tom. She is a single mother who lives a decent life free from drugs and alcohol, yet she has been battling insomnia for months. Mary and Tom are two individuals diagnosed with psychological disorders, though the lifestyles they have chosen do not raise any flags.

A common Misconception regarding anxiety is that it only affects certain people. People who are happy with their life and have a good job will never have to worry about anxiety since they have nothing to stress about. If this were the case then Tom is an exception. Tom is an engineer, has a wonderful wife who is supportive of him, and three children. Tom’s life is very satisfying; his job allows him to lead a rewarding life. The past six months Tom has experienced hot flashes and muscle aches, along with severe headaches. Tom finds himself worrying about his health, money and his job. There have been times that Tom’s anxiety has interfered with his ability to do his job. The symptoms conclude that Tom is suffering from generalized anxiety. In order to cure Tom’s anxiety the causes and factors associated with anxiety must be known first. Unlike Many psychological disorders Anxiety is linked to a person’s environment more so than to their genetics. Christa Hohoff (2009), stressful experiences in childhood show to increase the probability of having anxiety. It is believed that certain genes are linked to anxiety however unless triggered they will remain dormant. Methionine is a variant in the brain that has been linked to anxiety. Therefore, stress in childhood may trigger the gene and create anxiety. (Christa Hohoff 2009) Toms has recently been diagnosed with Anxiety, he has been suffering for a short while therefore eliminating childhood stress as a cause of anxiety. The WebMD website, neurotransmitters within the brain has been linked to generalized anxiety. People with generalized anxiety have trouble reacting to a situation properly. Within the brain the neurotransmitters’ are out of control and the signals are stuck in rush hour therefore creating frustration and stress to occur.

Annually 4 million people are diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety. Many treatments are available to treat anxiety. However, many medications created to treat Anxiety do not cure the disorder only push it to the back burner causing dependency on the medication to live a normal life. Pinel, (2007) name two types of medications used to treat anxiety: Benzodiazepines and Serotonin Agonists. Benzodiazepines are used commonly to treat anxiety however they often cause drowsiness which will interfere with a person’s daily routine. The medication gives a person a choice: deal with the anxiety or be in a tranquilized state. Benzodiazepines are highly addictive since the person must continuously take the medication to prevent withdrawal. Serotonin Agonists are the preferred mediation to treat anxiety since the side effects are less severe than Benzodiazepines. However, any mediation used to treat anxiety will not cure the disorder; in order to keep the anxiety at bay the person must confront the causes of the stress. (Pinel,2007)

Although medication tends to be the treatment of choice therapy is a healthier alternative to curing anxiety. WebMD website, Cognitive-behavioral therapy forces the person to confront the problem and alter the feelings and the though process. Tom is worried about his career and his family. Tom is the breadwinner in the family; if something were to happen to him his family would lose a substantial amount of income. Tom’s job seems very demanding of him therefore he must find ways to reduce stress at work. There may be many causes for Tom’s anxiety. A death of a person close in age may have him worried about his family and their future. The poor economic outlook may also have him fearful of his job security. Tom has not been a long-time sufferer of Anxiety. Therefore, he does not suffer from miscommunication between neurotransmitters, he was able to process and react properly just months before. The last thing Tom wants to do is take medication, therapy will prove far more effective.

Mary like Tom has recently been suffering from a psychological disorder. Mary is a single mother who has no history of drug or substance abuse. As a single parent it is important for her to get adequate sleep in order to keep up at work as well as take care of her child. As with Tom’s anxiety the first step is analyzing the causes for insomnia. According to Ebben & Spielman,(2009) “Current estimates indicate that 6% to 15% of the population suffers with insomnia.” Insomnia is a disorder itself but is often found in other disorders such as anxiety and depression. When analyzing insomnia the problem may go deeper than having problems sleeping. When a person has difficulties sleeping it can mean many things. A person may be too upset to sleep or a person may be consumed with the endless list of chores and tasks. However; Ebben & Spielman “Anxiety is one of the most frequent associated features of insomnia. Insomniacs have a 17 times greater risk of suffering from anxiety than those without insomnia. Generalized anxiety disorder is present in 44% of insomniacs.” Pinel, (2007) another main cause of insomnia is from medication. Benzodiazepines are known to be a sleeping drug.

Therefore those who use the medication to treat anxiety and depression will experience insomnia if they stop using the medication.

According U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2006), Mary suffers from chronic primary insomnia, she experiences trouble sleeping many times a week and there is not health issues causing her insomnia. Women are more prone to insomnia than men. Women are more prone to the main cause of insomnia as well which is anxiety. There are many treatments and medications available to treat insomnia. “Almost 80% of the medications prescribed for insomnia were benzodiazepine derivatives and another 15% were benzodiazepine related drugs. Most of the remaining 5% of prescribed medications were antidepressants,” states Charles, Harrison & Britt (2009). As previously mentioned benzodiazepines are quite effective in causing drowsiness many people refer to them as tranquilizers. The disadvantage of the medication though is the risks of becoming dependent are high. Mary’s doctor is quite aware of the addiction risk and has reservation about prescribing the drugs to her.

There are other options. Relaxation therapy and changes to daily routine are effective ways to end insomnia. Relaxation therapy is a healthy way to free the mind from the constant jabbering. Many times people find it hard to shut their brains off in order to get a good night’s sleep. Subtle changes to a person’s routine may also be effective in curing insomnia. Exercising, refraining from naps, bedtime routines and keeping a journal are ways to help combat insomnia. Mary must figure out the cause of her insomnia. Did she recently go through a stressful event? Is she worrying about finances since she is a single parent? Mary may also be adjusting to sleeping all night, since she is a single parent she had to get up throughout eh night to take care of her child, once the child begins sleeping all night the parent may still me accustomed to waking up.

All in all, Insomnia and Anxiety are often linked together due to similar symptoms. In many cases a person diagnosed with anxiety will experience insomnia and a person with insomnia may exhibit anxiety. Though the two psychological disorders can be caused by brain chemistry and genetics, most often they are caused by stressful experiences. Though medication is available to treat the two disorders medications seem to cause more problems than they can cure. The most effective form of treatment is therapy which gets to the root of the problem and allows the person to seek ways to solve the issues.

References

Christa Hohoff. (2009). Anxiety in mice and men: a comparison. Journal of Neural Transmission, 116(6), 679-687. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1745411801).

Janice Charles, Christopher Harrison, Helena Britt. (2009). Insomnia. Australian Family Physician, 38(5), 283. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1711720841).

Matthew R Ebben, Arthur J Spielman. (2009). Non-pharmacological treatments for insomnia. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(3), 244-54. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1703478701).

Pinel, J. P. J. (2007). Basics of biopsychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2006). Insomnia. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/faq/insomnia.cfm

WebMD. (2009). Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from http://www.medicinenet.com/anxiety/article.htm