what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

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The equipment for a sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was arranged in a proper way as well as for every gel. There was the distance of 1mm spacers between the two lead crystal plates. Then, the plastic comb was put in and it was noted that the comb penetration must be noticed. In the next step, detached the comb and other two similar SDS-PAGE determining gels (Table) were equipped and dispensed in in the middle of the glass plates to almost 0.5-1 cm under the lowest of the comb.

2.4 Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

The equipment for a sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was arranged in a proper way as well as for every gel. There was the distance of 1mm spacers between the two lead crystal plates.

Then, the plastic comb was put in and it was noted that the comb penetration must be noticed. In the next step, detached the comb and other two similar SDS-PAGE determining gels (Table) were equipped and dispensed in in the middle of the glass plates to almost 0.5-1 cm under the lowest of the comb. The determining gels were enclosed with iso-propanol and permitted to keep them for at least 10-15 notes. Later the deciding gel was kept, the iso-propanol was discharged and any surplus was moved away by wiping with the help of filter paper. Then it came to make ready the two assembling gels (Table). After it was dispensed on topmost of the regular resolving gels and the plastic comb was introduced for both and then these were kept approximately 15 minutes. Then these were then shifted to the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis tank. This tank was full with SDS-PAGE consecutively buffer (Table). The surplus protein results were combined with the identical size of 2x SDS-PAGE loading buffer (Table) and it was kept at the temperature of 95 °C for further 5 minutes. The resulted removes were simplified in benchtop centrifuge using centrifugation. The time given was 5 minutes at 14,000g and the suitable capacity of supernatant was full with the gel. It is the loading volumes designated for all procedure in Chapter…. . The SDS-PAGE gels were route at 70 mA for an hour. As alternate till the bromophenol blue tracing dye touched the lowermost of the gel.

In the further step, a gel was picked out and then discolored for complete 2 hours in Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 dye (Table) and at that time inSDS-PAGE gel destain (discoloration solution minus Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 stain). The solution was then put subsequently 1 hour. A new destain was poured. Then the gel was kept on an orbital shaker to destain for the whole nighto. The gel was detached since the destain solution in the following morning and reserved in water. It helped to avoid the gel from lack of water or lack of moisture. It was further snapped.

 

9 Chemiluminescent detection

Growth was led by means of the SuperSignal®West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate kit (Pierce). Concisely, peroxide solution(1mL) was dissolved with 1 mL of Iuminol/enhancer solution. It was then pipetted straight over the membrane. It was later kept warm in the black using incubator for 3 minutes. The immunoblots were later got on film using a VersaDoc™ 4000 molecular snapping system (Bio-Rad).

 

 

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The four stages of sexual response according to Master and Johnson (1966) are considered the steps to a happy correlation between the men and the women. One cannot be without the other one, the four phases the both male and female experience in a sexual response cycle are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sexual response cycle refers to the series of physical and emotional changes that occur between two persons as they become sexually aroused and participate in sexually stimulating activities. By knowing how you respond to these cycles your relationship can be improve and help you identify any sexual dysfunction.

 

 

 

 

 

The Sexual Response Cycle

Roberto Castro

PSY-210

March 21, 2010

Professor Dr. Jocelyn Enabulele

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sexual Response Cycle Check-Point

The four stages of sexual response according to Master and Johnson (1966) are considered the steps to a happy correlation between the men and the women. One cannot be without the other one, the four phases the both male and female experience in a sexual response cycle are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sexual response cycle refers to the series of physical and emotional changes that occur between two persons as they become sexually aroused and participate in sexually stimulating activities. By knowing how you respond to these cycles your relationship can be improve and help you identify any sexual dysfunction.

By sexual response, we mean the physical aspect of sexuality; there are many differences between a man and a woman. For both they are certain characteristic that differs from one to the other but in conclusion they both experience the same physiological aspect of sexuality.

Phase 1: Excitement

For men in response to sexual stimuli there is a process call vasocongestion, were more blood flows into the penis than is flowing out, as a result the men get an erection. Also the head gets a purple color, there also changes in the scrotum and testes were they increase in size, the skin become flush, heightened sensitivity in parts of the body, hearth rate increase, blood pressure and muscle tension. In woman they experience vaginal lubrication, vaginal lengthening, swelling of the external and lower third creating an orgasmic platform, breast become fuller, her skin become sensitive to the touch increasing pleasure.

 

 

Phase 2: Plateau

In this phase sexual stimulation correspond to the initial arousal and excitement up until an orgasm. For many men the plateau phase is very short or they can prolong as a way to control an orgasm. Also at this stage our blood pressure increase our breathing become more rapid and heavier, the women’s vagina swells and increase blood flow to further engorge the area. The man’s testicles withdrawn up in the scrotum, muscle spasms may begin in the feet, face and hands, tension in the muscles increase.

Phase 3: Orgasm

On the orgasmic phase in the male consist in two stages of muscular contraction, first seminal fluid is collected in the urethral bulb, this collection is usually felt  as tickling sensation, muscle tense, next the semen is ejaculated from the penis. In women, the vaginal wall contract every eight-tenth of a second this can vary depending on the individual orgasm, the muscle in the uterus also contract. Sometimes orgasm comes with a grasping type of muscular reflex of the hands and feet. Orgasm usually last longer in women than in men, it is normal for a woman to have multiple orgasm during one cycle.

Phase 4: Resolution

This stage is when the body returns to an unaroused state, the men experience the loss of erection as the blood flows out of the penis, the scrotum return to his normal size and the so called refractory period were the man cannot have another orgasm during this time. This can last up to ten minutes of recovery time. Women don’t have a recovery period after orgasm that could impede the start of an immediate, new excitatory cycle, contrary to what happens in males. This way is possible for women to have multiple orgasms.

Changes in Sexual Functioning

They are certain age related changes that affect sexual functioning.  And for many people that want to be close to others as they grow older these changes affect not only the desire to continue an active life but a satisfying sex life as they get older. Normal aging brings physical changes in both men and women and these changes sometime affect the ability to have sex. The woman may notice changes in her vagina, as she gets older her vagina shorten and narrow, they become thinner and a little stiffer. Most women will have less vaginal lubrication affecting sexual function and pleasure. (National Institute of Health, July, 2009) There are many other problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. These are lack of sexual desire, inability to become aroused, lack of orgasm, or sexual climax, or painful intercourse. These problems may have physical or psychological causes. Physical may include conditions like diabetes, heart disease, nerve disorders or hormone problems. Psychological problems may include, work related stress and anxiety, depression, concern about marriage or infidelity, and menopause.

In men impotence also called erectile dysfunction become more common. Erectile dysfunction is the ability to have or keep an erection for sexual intercourse. ED causes the man to take longer to have an erection or may not be as firm or as large as it used to be. (National Institute of Health, July, 2009). In concern with the men erectile dysfunction they are other causes that will affect the sexual relation with their partners. These are heart diseases and their medication, medication for high blood pressure will cause in men erectile dysfunction, diabetes, alcohol and illegal drugs. Stress, anger, depression also can lead to impotence.

 

 

Common Methods of Treatment for Sexual Dysfunction

The treatment for sexual dysfunction has advance in recent years, many companies has come up with treatment for men with ED, medication that recently came to market as a result of many years of study in men with sexual dysfunction. Medication like Sildenafil (Viagara), Tadalafil (Cialis), and Vardenafil (Levitra) has help hundreds of thousands of men with this problem. They are other treatment for men but these three are the most popular. As for women with sexual concerns they have a combined approach of treatment that address their concern, the solution is a medical as well an emotional treatment. On the medical solution per example using vaginal estrogen cream, or estrogen therapy, progestin therapy and androgen therapy; testosterone may be given as a cream or a gel patch or given as a pill or injection.

Also more often behavioral treatments such as couple’s therapy and stress management are needed to address the roots of female and male sexual dysfunction.  A combination of medication and behavioral approach work the best. Physical changes and psychological will required to help most men and women, quit smoking, lose weight, get treatment for alcohol and drug abuse, exercise regularly and work throughout relationships issues, improve communication with your partner and considered couples or marriage counseling.

In conclusion changes in our lives are not necessary the reason to have a healthy sex life, we most considered that under the circumstances we all have to go thru the same. Getting old don’t need to bring our sex life to a halt, our expectation and the willingness to adjust are crucial factor for a happy sexual fulfillment.

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Sexual dysfunction according to the Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is inadequate enjoyment of sex, or complete failure to enjoy any form of sexual intercourse. There may be multiple causes for the lack of sexual interest or desire, impairments in sexual arousal such as erectile dysfunction in men or premature ejaculation or vaginismus or hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in woman. Many cases may be attribute to substance abuse, alcoholism, prescription drugs, hormonal conditions in woman, or may be a case of rape or sexual abuse during childhood. However, other reasons for both men and women having a sexual dysfunction are related to psychological reasons than to sexual dissatisfaction.

 

 

 

 

 

Sexual Dysfunction Check Point

Roberto Castro

PSY-265

04/29/2011

Professor Lisa Nave


Sexual Dysfunction Check Point

Sexual dysfunction according to the Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is inadequate enjoyment of sex, or complete failure to enjoy any form of sexual intercourse. There may be multiple causes for the lack of sexual interest or desire, impairments in sexual arousal such as erectile dysfunction in men or premature ejaculation or vaginismus or hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in woman. Many cases may be attribute to substance abuse, alcoholism, prescription drugs, hormonal conditions in woman, or may be a case of rape or sexual abuse during childhood. However, other reasons for both men and women having a sexual dysfunction are related to psychological reasons than to sexual dissatisfaction.

One of the predominant sexual dysfunction in men is erectile disorder, and it is known as impotence were the men is unable to gain an erection or to keep it. This sexual dysfunction can be cause by physiological or psychological factors or a combination of both. It is also believe that many cases involve organic or substance induced impairment of the erection response. Medication used to control blood pressure, diabetes, high levels of cholesterol may have an influence; also nerve damage, alcoholism, drug abuse, tobacco, multiple sclerosis, kidney failure, radiation therapy, and vascular problems (Myer, 1986).

Psychological factors for erectile dysfunction can be extremely complicated, any personal or interpersonal factor can contribute to an erectile dysfunction. Master & Johnson (1966, 1970) emphasized “Once the man begins to experience erectile problems, for whatever reason he begins to become anxious about failing to have an erection, and his focus during sexual encounters centre’s in his penis performance. By focusing undue attention on performance he inadvertently distances himself from the sexual experience adopting a spectator role and thus is unable to simply relax and enjoy the sensations of sexual pleasure resulting in anxiety and failure.”

The treatment for erectile dysfunction involved physical, psychological intervention and in many cases recent drugs that help man to achieve or maintain an erection like Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra, other treatment like vacuum constriction, penile prosthesis or injections are available too for those with more complex dysfunction.

We have mentioned the most common dysfunction in men, in women’s are many form of sexual dysfunctions. Female sexual dysfunction is the absence of orgasm after a period of normal sexual excitement and most causes are mark by distress and discomfort before or during the sexual encounter. One of the most common examples in women’s sexual dysfunction is vaginismus and the symptoms are recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the vaginal muscles that interfere with sexual intercourse. There is a relationship of this disorder with rape and sexual abuse, strict religious upbringing and issues of control. However, most causes of female sexual dysfunction may be to complication of alcohol, anxiety, depression, illness, negative body perception, distraction, and stress.

Other concepts known as a vascular, hormonal such as estrogen caused by aging, menopause or hysterectomy can also diminish sexual desire, lack of sexual fantasies. Treatments for this related dysfunction are:

  1. Education on female anatomy, arousal and response; where blood flow, hormone levels, and sexual anatomy are normal.
  2. Hormone replacement therapy.
  3. Vascular treatment. Some evidence of the medication Sildenafil (Viagra) has been found to restore libido lost to antidepressants and other medications.
  4. Lubricants and creams to assist in sensitiveness and increase orgasm in both men and woman.

In conclusion, most of the sexual dysfunctions and disorder in both men and woman are related to stressful situation in their lives or a physiological condition cause by themselves. Whether drug abuse, alcoholism, or medication use to prevent a disease like diabetes, high blood pressure,  or relationship factors, psychiatric co-morbidity like depression, anxiety, poor body image, or a cultural-religious factor have an effect in the positive sexual functioning for both men and women alike.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistician’s Manual 4th Edition

American Psychiatric Association (2011) Proposed DSM-V Revision

http://www.dsm5.org/Proposed/Revision/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=172

Master W. H.; Johnson V. E. (1966) Human Sexual Response. Bantam Books ISBN

0-553-20429-7 New York.

Master W. H.; Johnson V. E. (1970) Human Sexual Inadequacy. Bantam Books 0-553-20699-0

New York.

Myer, D. M. (1986) Psychology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Discuss an environmental problem that you feel is significant in your town or city. What are some of the causes? Are any of these causes related to human values and environmental ethics? Explain your answers.

 

 

 

 

 

Local Environmental Issue Check-Point

Roberto Castro

SCI-275

Professor David Jones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discuss an environmental problem that you feel is significant in your town or city. What are some of the causes? Are any of these causes related to human values and environmental ethics? Explain your answers.

Two of the main environmental concern that I have here in Florida is the pollution of the waters and the raising of temperatures. Since I have moved here I have notice a more trending raise in temperature and the level of quality in the water has diminish. During the 1980’s we never saw that many storm hit Florida has we have seeing during recent years. We can say that global warming is the cause and the raising pollution cause by the released of carbon dioxide into the air by the big energy companies located here in Florida. In 2007 Florida ranks 3rd nationwide for most pollution from power plants, the Environmental Protection Agency has considered regulating these power plants but they still continue using the dirties of all fuel to produce electricity and that is the burning of coal. The other issue is the quality of water; the released of chemicals, pesticides, oils and paints, detergents, and the run off of farms has cause the quality of the water to change. In recent years they have to put a halt to the waist of water to help control the lost of water from Lake Okeechobee.

All of these and much more are related to the loss of human values and environmental ethics of big corporation that won’t stop in the pursuit of making more money for their pockets. In recent years I saw a picture of what Florida will look in 25 years if the melting ice caps and glaciers continue to disappear. It is overwhelmed just to look at it, Florida like hundred of small islands will actually disappear.

 

 

 

 

Photo from Google.com

This is a picture of Florida in 25 years.

If we don’t do something to protect our environment these are the result. Changing our behavior toward a better place to live not only will help the environment for us but for our children too. There is probably not much to explain the pictures explain everything, we want to live in a clean and prosperous planet if we take care of it our children and grandchildren will thank us later.

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The United States is not like any other country in the world; the freedoms experience here and education surpass any other country. People come here to the United States looking to live the American dream but sometimes become a nightmare. For many people to express themselves when they do not speak the language is very difficult. The language barrier is one of the causes, the English language is difficult for some people to learn and others don’t make the effort to learn.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Languages of United States

Roberto Castro

Professor Jaylinn Elliott

Com-150

February 2, 2010

 

 

 

 

The United States is not like any other country in the world; the freedoms experience here and education surpass any other country. People come here to the United States looking to live the American dream but sometimes become a nightmare. For many people to express themselves when they do not speak the language is very difficult. The language barrier is one of the causes, the English language is difficult for some people to learn and others don’t make the effort to learn.

The United States has the biggest diversity of languages than any other country in particular. Even when English wasn’t the original language here because of the native living in the land and most people coming to the new world; English and Spanish were the predominant languages at the time and today both languages still the dominant language spoken. Also Spanish since 1970 is the language widely taught in most colleges and universities across the country (ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 35, 2-3). English has never been the official language for the past two hundred years so why change now?  For this country is beneficial having multiple languages because helps preserve the diversity and culture identity.

The Census of 2000 shows that English is not the only language spoken in United States, there is about 200 languages including the American Native Indian. Also there is the fact that English is taught in schools from pre-schools to high schools in every states.

 

 

 

 

English wasn’t established as a language until the six or Seven Century A.C.  During the first years of colonization of the New World the Spanish were the first to set foot in what is call today Florida. Spanish conquistadores came and colonize parts of the territory of Florida, Mexico, Texas, New Mexico and, California. They were other that came and set colonies like the French, German and, England in the 1600 A.C. but the Spaniards were here before them.

Early natives that live in the U.S. had different languages and communicate to each other in many ways.  Today they still around 150 tribes that had kept their language alive even they all have being assimilated into the American culture.

Many Indian tribes disappeared or were assimilated by other tribes; many of them also were killed in the process of repatriation of their land. During the 1990 Census the count of American native was evidently surprising a little more of 1.9 million and most of them still practice their original language. The biggest of all tribes is the Cherokee with 308,000 and the Navajos with 219,000 (USA Department of Commerce Census 1990). Evidently all this tribes have English as the primary language but they still practice their native languages as an important way to keep their cultures. The most common languages that are still are used by the Native American are:

(USA Department of Commerce Census 2000)

1)      Cherokee

2)      Navajo

3)      Dakota

4)      Western Apache

5)      Alaskan Yupik

6)      Piman

7)      Choctaw

8)      Keres

9)      Zuni

10)  Ojibwe

English has not been established as the official language of the United States but has been the predominant language for more than 200 years. Many Americans assume that English is the official language of the United States, but is not. Nowhere in the Constitution is English privileged over other languages, and no federal law has established English as the language of the land. For generations English has been taught from family to family for those that are born here. But for the large contingency of people that have immigrated to the United States second language has been an issue if they should keep it or not. Even today kids born from American families are required to learn English and they start as early pre-schools grades were the being taught their A,B,C’s. According to the 2000 Census there are 262.4 millions habitants in the United States over the age of five, 47 million of them reported speaking a language other than English, 29.1 million of those reported speaking Spanish making it the second spoken language (USA Department of Commerce Census 2000). A survey of state education found that, in 2001 more than four million students with limited proficiency in English were enrolled across the nation, making up ten percent of the total pre-k through 12th grade public school enrollment (Kindler, 2002).

Another survey done by the Bank Street College of Education in New York City, they predict that by the year 2010, over thirty percent of all school age children will come from homes in which the primary language is not English. They also said that most of the immigrants come from a wide variety of ethnic background, from different economic situation and may have come this country for a variety of reasons; they all have in common the desire to learn English. (www.bnkst.edu/literacyguide/ell.html)

 

There is also the fact that 40 percent of American household that speak only English is learning a second language as part of their work, community service, armed forces or, missionary church trips to other countries. They are some people that want to change the laws on whether English should be the official language and only English being taught in schools and only used at work. They are some states that have make legislation in whether pass this law other simply had ignored it. Like any other law that required approval by the majority of people this one has simply stop in their track. People in both aisles has approved and disapproved because it is unconstitutional. This legislation has being call H.R 997- The English Language Unity Act of 2009 it is mostly a biased form of eliminating any other language that is not English including the native American languages that still exist today. Here are some of the things that will disappear if this piece of legislation is approved. They will be written in English only.

  1. Translators in public hospitals and courts
  2. 911 emergency service
  3. Voting material, instruction and ballots
  4. Court reporters and other legal services
  5. Bilingual education in public schools
  6. Schools materials, parents conferences, reports cards
  7. Drivers licenses regulation and examinations
  8. Non English radio and television broadcasting
  9. Non English holding in public libraries
  10. Streets sings, park names, commemorative naming of public sites
  11. Directory assistance
  12. Tourist information
  13. Bus and train schedule and sings
  14. General advertising, business sings, billboards, menus ( Zall; Crawford 1989, EPIC Events,1988, both issues)

The real agenda for altering the US Constitution and making English the national language is the protection of English language but in reality the organization behind this amendment is purging the government of foreign language use. Beardsmore and Willemyns (1986, 21) have suggested that the ELA is “making something far more fundamental and that languages is being used as scapegoats”

 

There also the fact that more Americans are studying other languages other than Spanish. According to a survey in 2002, more college students sign up for classes other than Spanish. And also in a search for jobs most of all application asks if you know any other language. Spanish continues to be the most popular language taught in American colleges and universities across the country, but enrollments in French, German, Italian, Japanese and, Chinese have grow.

Other languages that are being taught and getting popular with college students are Shawili, Persian, Hawai’ian, Polish, Arabic, and Vietnamese (ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 35. 2-3(Winter- Spring 2004).

 

In conclusion even that English is the predominant language of the United States they are more languages spoken here than any other country outside the United States. China will be the second largest nation but Chinese and Mandarin are the common languages. Europe with all the diversity of languages like French, German, Italy, Sweden and, other nations they all speak English. Even Saudi Arabia, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Spain and Portugal have English teach at their schools. English has come to be the universal language he is spoken in more than 200 countries.

People will continue seek the American dream and will do anything to live here and when that happened they will bring their culture and their language with them. With each new family coming here it still the American unending process. Every time we hear someone speaking in other language and feel so good to listen we know that we are in America the land of freedom. The land were culture diversity is so acceptable that creates a complete unity is not found in any other place in the world.

 

 

 

It is imperative not to lose our culture or language like other has in the past. Rodger Doyle (Scientific American March 1998) once he say and quote in part “Speakers of minority languages have been forcibly relocated and combined with speakers of other languages, as happened when Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves. Practices such as these have made Native American languages the most imperiled of any on the earth. The death of languages is not only a tragedy for those directly involved but also an irretrievable cultural loss for the rest of the world. Through language, each culture expresses a unique worldview. Thus, any effort to preserve linguistic variety implies a deep respect for the positive values of other culture.” This will be the legacy of the United States if we change to only one language as they have try in many occasions. Not only America will lose his diversity but all the culture expectation that exist in this country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Adams, Karen L, Brink Daniel T. (1990) Perspective on official English: The campaign for

English as the official language of USA

Association of Department of Foreign Languages (2004) bulletin Vol. 35. 2-3

(Spring- Winter)

Bank Street College of Education (2009) www.bnkst.edu/litteracyguide/html

Census 2000 Gateway.  www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html

Daniels, Harvey. (1990) Not only English: Affirming America’s Multilingual Heritage

Subjects: Language Policy- United States, English language-Political aspect,

English-only Movement.

Kindler, A. L. (2002) Surveys of the States Limited English Proficient Students and Available

Program and Services, 2001-2002 Summary Report

U.S. Department of Commerce Census 1990 Native American Tribes Population

U.S. Department of Commerce Census 2000 Native American Languages

Wiley, Terrence G. (1997) Myths About language Diversity and Literacy in the United States

 

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Famous poets wrote and quote “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddle masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tots’ to me; I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”(Emma Lazarus, 1883). The United States is considered the land of freedom were for hundred of year people has come looking to lived the American dream. They come for the freedom, jobs, and in many cases to practice their religion without been persecuted. But the immigration issue has cost this nation a lot to be concern and now the fragile balance to support immigration to this country has been compromised.

 

 

 

 

 

Is Illegal Immigration the cause of all Economic Problems in USA?

Roberto Castro

COM-220

April 11, 2010

Professor William Taylor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Famous poets wrote and quote “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddle masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tots’ to me; I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”(Emma Lazarus, 1883). The United States is considered the land of freedom were for hundred of year people has come looking to lived the American dream. They come for the freedom, jobs, and in many cases to practice their religion without been persecuted. But the immigration issue has cost this nation a lot to be concern and now the fragile balance to support immigration to this country has been compromised. Since the attacks of 9/11 many people feel that our borders need to be secure and that many illegal immigrants need to be deal in a promptly manner. Many studies have being made but one in particular has made me look at this issue very closely because not all illegal immigrants are here to displace American from their jobs. Studies made by the Center for Immigration Studies and Steven Camarota stating that illegal immigrants create a drain in the US government, illegal immigrants are not the only cause but major companies moving to other countries to make more profits and escape from paying taxes and retirement benefits, leaving hundreds of American without jobs. Illegal immigrants only work in those jobs most American don’t want and since the signing of the law in 1996 most illegal immigrants cant receive any benefits like food stamps or Medicaid for them or their families. Recent studies made by the Department of Homeland Security Office found that illegal immigrants’ population has drop from 11.8 million in January 2008 to 10.6 million in January 2009 (DHS Population Estimate, January, 2009).

Statistic shows the decrease in illegal immigrants by a study done by Homeland Security Office. The figures from 2001 to 2004 are not available due to the 9/11 action and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Between 2000 and 2007, the unauthorized population grew by 27 percent. Of all unauthorized immigrants living in the United States in 2007, 63 percent entered before 2000, and 62 percent were from Mexico.

 

 

 

The decrease in the size of the unauthorized population between 2008 and 2009 is not likely due to sample error said the DHS but more likely the stiffest laws pass by the Congress and Immigration Office to companies that hire illegal immigrants and more security in our borders. According to the Annual Report of 2008, the DHS immigration enforcement has apprehended 792,000 foreign nationals; 88 percent were natives of Mexico, 359,000 aliens were removed and 811,000 accepted an offer to return to their countries without removal orders, and 97,000 known criminals were also removed from United States.

 

Many concerns from Americans about illegal immigrants are that they are draining public services like food stamp, welfare, health care and schools funding.  Steven Camarota director of research for the Center for Immigration Studies assert “that illegal aliens imposed more than 26.3 billion dollars in cost in federal government in 2002 and paid only 16 billion in taxes creating a fiscal deficit of 10.4 billion in programs like Medicaid, Women, infant and Children food program, and federal aid to schools lunches, (1.9 billion); the federal court and prison system (1.6 billion), and federal aid to schools (1.4 billion)” (Illegal Immigrants Create a Drain on US Government, 2007 Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center).

Now the question is; how is that Steven Camarota has come with these figures if in 1996 the Congress passes a law reforming Welfare? In 1996 welfare reform bill disqualified illegal immigrants from nearly all means-tested government programs including food stamp, housing assistance, Medicaid and Medicare funded hospitalization. The only services illegal can still get are emergency care and K-12 education. (The Library of Congress, HR 3734 Sec.401-411 Welfare Reform Act, 1996). Also there is the fact that illegal immigrant paid taxes in many ways, experts agree that at the time of collecting taxes the IRS collets more than 18 billion dollars from workers with little probabilities of claiming a refund and no hope of claiming a Social Security check. According to Mark Hinkle spokesmen from the Social Security Office says “The office estimates that for 2005, the agency paid nine billion dollars on 75 billion in wages receive from people that filled W-2 forms with incorrect or mismatch data which will  include illegal immigrants that drew paychecks under fake names and Social Security numbers. But that nine billion dollars sound like a lot of money and it is, but is only 1.5 percent of the total 593 billion paid into Social Security in 2005” (Many Illegal Immigrants Pay up at Tax Time by Travis Loller, USA Today Feb 25, 2010).

Now let’s talk about Unemployment figures; The Center for Immigration Studies says that illegal immigrants are taking jobs from American citizens, it is probably true but the facts are different today than 15 years ago. Statistic shows that unemployment is higher among legally working immigrants than American citizens. Steve Camarota states that immigrants have been hit somewhat harder by the current recession than have native-born Americans. Immigrants on both sides legally and illegally now have a significantly higher unemployment rate than natives.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another way to look at the recession is to examine the number of people holding jobs. Tables 1 and 2 report this information. Since the third quarter of 2007 the number of working immigrants declined 2.1 million, or 9 percent. Among natives the decline in the number working was about 4.5 million, or 3.7 percent. This adds further support to the idea that immigrants are being hit harder by the recession than are natives. Figure 1 reports this information graphically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the above analysis we compared the third quarter of 2007 to the current quarter. If one wishes to compare unemployment rates in other quarters, Table 4 provides employment statistics by educational attainment for every quarter since the third quarter of 2007. Figure 2 is a graphical representation of unemployment rates of immigrants and natives going back to the beginning of 2005.

 

 

 

 

These figures don’t count the actual illegal immigrants that are without jobs not only by the recession but also the strictly laws pass by the Homeland Security Office to those companies that use to hire illegal immigrants.

The reason for the economy meltdown is not cause by illegal immigrants like many people want to portrayed about them, but big corporations that have desire to moved their companies abroad to escape paying taxes, benefits and compensation to the American workers. One of the biggest unions of United States, the AFL-CIO state in one of their issues “Policymakers must reform policies that encourage and reward jobs destruction and implement new policies that will create good jobs for the future. While no single policy measure provides a magic bullet for stopping job loss, a dramatic re-orientation of US policy that removes incentives for shipping jobs offshore, while fostering healthy conditions at home for job creation. Will go a long way towards building more balance global economy that works for the American families”. (www.afl-cio.org/issues/jobseconomy/exportingamerica/outsourcing_solution.cfm)

These have been the issue since the implementation of the NAFTA, many corporation before and after had outsource jobs to Japan, China, Mexico, Philippines and other countries with the benefits of making lots of profits. Now they have other reason to moved complete corporation abroad and that is to avoid paying taxes, benefits, retirement plans and to break companies unions.

Ten big corporations that have moved their headquarters abroad to pay less US taxes.

a)      Halliburton a Houston base company once led by Vice-President Dick Cheney relocates to Saudi Arabia in March, 2007.

b)      Accenture a former Big Five accounting firm moved to Bermuda.

c)      Foster Wheeler engineering company moved to Bermuda.

d)     Ingersoll-Rand Co. LTD moved to Bermuda.

e)      Tyco International LTD provider of health care faced IRS audit moved to Bermuda.

f)       Cooper Industries electrical products and tools moved to Bermuda.

g)      Noble Drilling Service Inc. one of the largest companies in offshore drilling moved to Cayman Island.

h)      Global Crossing telecommunication provider moved to Bermuda.

i)        Seagate Technology LLC designer and manufacturer rank number nine in PC World’s moved to Cayman Island.

j)        Nabors Industries LTD word biggest offshore drilling company moved from Texas to Bermuda and Barbados, Nabor Industries report a 428.4 million in profit in the US and would have paid 86 million in taxes.

All this companies when moving they left a total of 53,000 people unemployed and without benefits. They have made a total of combine profit of 1.6 trillion dollar and have not paid a cent in USA taxes. According to Douglas McIntyre, editor at 247wallst.com said “In a tough economy, the income tax burden on individuals becomes more of a weight. Add the payments to higher gas prices, mortgages that are being reset at lofty levels and rising food cost and the results can be awful. But at least corporation are paying income taxes to carry part of the burden running the federal government, right? Wrong as the New York Times writes, “Two out of every three United State corporation paid no federal income taxes from 1998 through 2005, according to a report released by the Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of the Congress”.

 

Many people including the Center for Immigration Studies have portrayed the illegal immigrants as the cause for the economic troubles in the United States. But the reason behind our economic problems goes far beyond the issue of immigrants either is here legally or illegally, the facts are there both are suffering the same economic trouble American-native is suffering. The issue here is that Congress should pass a law that will reform the existing laws that required big corporation to pay their taxes even if they moved their companies abroad. Also provide American employees and those immigrants that are legally here for work protection if the corporation wants to moved and eliminate jobs here. The other issue is the illegal immigrants that are already here and have families in United States, to give them the opportunity to stay as long the complied with the new immigration reforms that they will not bring any family from their country. The bottom line is that illegal immigrants has contribute in many ways to the American economic, they work low-paying physically demanding jobs that many American (though not all would rather not do) would otherwise be outsource altogether.  And by doing so, they will make money for innumerable tax-paying US corporations and determined the cost of good and service for every American. Finally there are too many variables to establish the exact financial impact of illegal immigration in the United States. But one issue is certain, that without determine how much, will prove costly for all.

 

 

 

References

AFL-CIO (2/18/2010). America’s Union Movement, Exporting America

       http://www.aflcio.org/issue/jobseconomy/exportingamerica/outsourcing_solution.cfm

Camarota Steve. Center for Immigration Studies; Welfare use by Immigrants-and Native         

    Headed-household with Children (2/10/2010).

Trends in Immigration and Native Employment (May, 2009).

http://www.cis.org/Camarota/WelfareUseByImmigrants

Homeland Security Office, Population Estimates: Estimates of Unauthorized Immigrants

      Population residing in the United States: January 2009. By Michael Hoefer, Nancy Rytina

and Brian C. Baker.

Annual Report; Immigration Enforcement Actions: 2008

      http://www.homelandsecurityoffice.com

Haugen David M. Illegal Immigrants do not Drain Public Services; Press 2008. Opposing

     Viewpoint Resources.

Haerens Margaret. Illegal Immigrants do not Harm America’s Economy; Press 2006.

   Opposing Viewpoint Resources.

 

    Miller Debra A. Illegal Immigrants Create a Drain on the U.S. Press 2007. Opposing

   Viewpoint Resources.

   McIntyre Douglas A. Companies that don’t pay taxes and it is most of them.

www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/13/companies Internal Revenue Service.

Loller Travis. Many Illegal Immigrants pay up at tax time; USA Today 2/25/2010.

http://usatoday.com/Many-illegal-immigrant

Library of Congress: HR3734 Sec. 401-411 Aliens who are not qualified, Aliens ineligibility                  

   For Federal Benefits (1996).

Words Editors HR; (6/4/2008) 10 Big Business that have Moved their Headquarters Abroad to

   Pay Less U.S. Taxes

   http://www.hrword.com/features/10-overseas-companies-060408

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                        

What is the main point of this paper?  

The main point of this paper is illegal immigration and the cause of economic problems in the USA.

 

 

 

 

What is the greatest strength of this paper?  

Steven Camarota’s comment about immigrants draining the government.

 

 

 

What material does not seem to fit the main point of the paper or does not seem to be appropriate for the audience?  

It is all appropriate.

 

 

 

Has the author sufficiently addressed counterarguments? Explain your answer. Yes, the author used citations and parenthesis.

 

 

 

 

Where should the author add more details or examples? Explain your answer. The author does not need to add any more details.

 

 

 

 

Where is the writing unclear or vague? The writing is not unclear or vague except for a few misspelled words.

 

 

 

 

What is your favorite part of this piece of writing? The introduction

 

 

 

 

What other comments can you provide for the author? The author should pay closer attention to his or her wording and spelling, other than these problems it is a good paper.