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Anthrax Paper Outline:

Anthrax Paper Outline:

 

  1. Introduction
    1. What is paper about?
      1. Anthrax Vaccination in the Military
      2. Mandatory Vaccination despite rejection by military members
      3. Should the anthrax vaccine be mandatory despite known dangers?
      4. Is it safe?
  2. What is the thesis or position of paper?
    1. “The mandatory anthrax vaccination program for United States military members has resumed despite three years of investigation into the vaccine’s adverse side effects.”
  3. How is it organized?
    1. Background of anthrax and what it is
    2. Background of Military immunization during Gulf War and present Iraq / Afghanistan Wars
    3. Reported Side effects
    4. Military members reject vaccine and are punished
    5. FDA guidelines
    6. Halting of mandatory vaccination
    7. Reissuing of mandatory vaccinations
    8. Survey of current members and their stance on vaccination
    9. Body of paper—Details and Discussion
      1. Background of Anthrax
        1. First reports of anthrax in the U.S.
        2. How is anthrax contracted?
        3. Weaponized anthrax in the middle east
  4. Background of military incorporation of anthrax immunization program
    1. Type of immunization

a)      Inhalation vs. cutaneous

(1)   No vaccine for inhaled anthrax poisoning

(2)   Vaccine only works against cutaneous (through the skin) poisoning

  1. Gulf War testing and possible relation of anthrax and Gulf War syndrome
    1. Military members given vaccine during Gulf War without proper testing of vaccine first
    2. Military members suspect link between Gulf War syndrome and the anthrax vaccine and its side effects from being mixed with other untested chemicals.
  2. Military members start to report adverse side effects
    1. Dover AFB has multiple accounts of member reported side effects
    2. Many vial of vaccine are found to have a fat-like substance called squalene, possible cause for side effects.
  3. Military members reject anthrax immunization
    1. Military members get punished for denying anthrax immunization
    2. Some are discharged or sent to jail
    3. Military asserts safety of program

a)      FDA history of anthrax vaccine approval

b)      Military storage of vaccine

  1. Judges halt mandatory vaccination
    1. New FDA guidelines
    2. Congress questions Department of Defense leadership on handling of vaccination program.
  2. Military reinstates mandatory vaccination, but only to personnel in high risk area of the world
    1. Military members are still unsure of safety of vaccine

a)      Survey results—use tables and/or figures

b)      Analyze survey and give a standpoint

  1. Conclusion—Give stance or editorial of findings
    1. Retell what was talked about in paper
    2. Give a final position on paper and restate thesis without saying the exact statement
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1. What is nutrition? Why is nutrition essential to our daily lives?

University of Phoenix Material

 

Nutrition and Health Worksheet

 

Use Ch. 1 of Contemporary Nutrition, Ch. 2 of Visualizing Nutrition, supplemental course materials, the University Library, the Internet, or other resources to answer the following questions. Your response to each question should be 75 to 100 words.

 

  1. What is nutrition? Why is nutrition essential to our daily lives?
Nutrition is the science that links foods to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests digests, absorbs, transports, and even excretes food substances. Nutrients are essential to our everyday lives because it provides the nutrients that our bodies need to function on a daily basis. Each person has their own individual nutritional need Nutrition helps to keep people health and can also assist with how the brain works.

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the connection between nutrition and health?
 

The connection between nutrition and health is that if the body is not receiving the proper nutrients then a person is jeopardizing their health.

 

 

  1. What are the six classes of nutrients? What are essential nutrients? What are the sources of nutrients? What do nutrients do?
The six classes of nutrients are water, carbohydrates, fats (lipids), proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Essential nutrients are nutrient that are required for normal body functioning that either can’t be synthesized by the body at all, or can’t be synthesized in amounts for good heaths.  The sources that we eat which is food are the nutrients for your body and brain. Nutrients help your body build new tissues, repair damaged cells, and produce energy.

 

 

 

  1. How do vitamins and minerals work?
Vitamins help to enable many forms of chemical reactions that occur inside of your body. However, these reactions help releases the energy that is trapped in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.  Minerals are structurally simple, inorganic substances, which is exist as groups of one or more of the same atoms.

 

 

 

  1. What does it mean to eat a balanced diet? Why is food choice important for good nutrition?
Eating a balanced diet means eating different types of foods from the variety of food groups, and the right amount of each of these foods to get all the essential nutrients required for good health without consuming excess calories. Food choice is important

 

 

 

  1. What is undernutrition? What is overnutrition?
 

Undernutrition is a nutritional deficiency resulting from lack of food or from the inability of the body to convert or absorb it. Overnutrition is the excessive intake of food, especially in unbalanced proportions.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Why is physical activity important as it relates to nutrition and health?
 

Physical activity is important because it can help produce long term health benefits, for people of all ages, shapes and sizes. It also has energy going in and out of your body.

 

 

  1. Where might you find dietary recommendations? What are the recommended dietary allowances (RDA)? What are dietary reference intakes (DRIs)?
Dietary Recommendations are primarily relies on fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat and nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meat. The Recommended Dietary Allowances are nutrient intake levels that meet the needs of most healthy Americans. Originally developed by the National Academy of Sciences, and were based on nutrient levels that would prevent nutrient deficiencies. RDAs have been developed as one component of nutrient intake standards called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). DRIs are a set of nutrients reference values. They are used to help people select healthful diets, set national nutrition policy, and establish safe upper limits of intakes.

 

 

 

  1. The United States Department of Agriculture created a diagram titled MyPlate. What is this diagram? Why should someone study this diagram?
This diagram MyPlate is a plate shape diagram that shows a pie chart that may give Americans an easier way to envision a mix of the food groups on a plate or even a bowl.  People should study this diagram because it gives us basic information on what we need to intake to become healthy.

 

 

 

 

  1. What are some tools for diet planning?
There are numerous tool for diet planning the first tool create a basic weekly menu on your computer, calendar. Another one be a food journal, food measurement tools, and a calorie counter.

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the calorie intake calculator? What factors does this calculator take into account?
The calorie intake calculator is to calculate your daily calorie needs so as to maintain your weight according to your daily activity levels. The calculator take how

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What are some dangers associated with dieting?
The word “dieting” commonly conjures up feelings of guilt and failure because it refers to a lifestyle change that is difficult or impossible to maintain. One would be nutritional deficiencies which would be diets brag “fast results” and call for dramatic changes in what you eat, such as consuming only cabbage soup or grapefruits. Another one is weight regain crash dieting isn’t worth the health risk it poses because it rarely results in long-term weight loss. Further your health risk it’s more of becoming a “yo-yo dieter” if you try a temporary or dramatic diet plan. This means your weight constantly fluctuates as you bounce from one diet to the next. The more you diet, the more likely you are to decrease your metabolism’s efficiency. Healthy goals Making permanent lifestyle and behavioral challenges is the best way to shed excess pounds and keep them off. Reaching your goal you must avoid obsessing over every calorie you eat or worrying about minor fluctuations in your weight. You will be more likely to stay successful if your stay focused on getting healthier and feeling better.

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the best way to lose weight? Explain your answer and provide at least one source, formatted consistent with APA guidelines, to support your answer.
I know it hard to lose weight you are exposed to a lot of concern around the world.  People say what the best way to lose weight is; there isn’t a best way to lose weight. There are general guidelines for losing weight.  You must eat a few calories, the best formula for losing weight is to decrease the amount of calories you intake. Increase your physical activity each and every day. Exercise for about 30 minutes every day. Eat less fat and sugar. This will help lower the number of calories you eat each day. Eat wide variety of food, including starches and dairy products. This will help your body to get the right amount of nutrients and vitamins it needs to be healthy. Starch is an important source of energy that all body’s needs, even when a person is trying to lose weight. It’s mainly found in potatoes, rice, pasta, bread, beans, and some vegetables. You must practice portion control. Eat smaller amounts of food at each meal. Support, it can be hard to start a weight lost program, ask family and friends to join you for support. You can also treat yourself once in a while, sometime we may try to cheat by eating one of our favorites items that are rich in calories, but just eat a small amount or even go to the store they have ones that 100 calories or less now.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

http://www.shapefit.com/losing-weight-best-way.html

 

 

 

  1. How does exercise influence body weight?
Weight loss is essentially an energy balance equation that requires you to consume fewer calories than you expend. To lose 1 pound. You mus create an energy deficit of 3,500 calories. Exercise allows you to burn calories in excess of what your body needs for daily maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Consider your personal dietary habits. What are some modifications you might make to promote good health?
 

My personal dietary habits are horrible, some modifications that I will take to promote good health is to do right, which is eating right, exercising.

 

 

 

 

  1. How does today’s society affect our nutritional habits?
 

I know I need to lose weight, but in today’s society it affect our nutrition habits in an good and bad way it has such an impact on kids even adults to the point where they have it on any source of media we will end up getting or try to do the same thing. By people showing food that are bad for us will hurt us more and more where they need to show something healthy or even let us sample it we will might enjoy it. Even the first lady goes on shows and try to help us exercise and get out and play she shows a great amount of affect to our nutritional habits.

 

 

 

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All adults go through biological changes when they enter late adulthood there are many types of changes that can occur that include memory loss, eyesight can become impaired, hearing loss, changes with organs; such as the heart, limited sexual capabilities, and depending on how physically fit a person is will also depend on the persons limitations. A person who eats healthy well balanced meals, drinks plenty of water, and exercises regularly can slow down the aging process a little.

Biological changes in late adulthood

All adults go through biological changes when they enter late adulthood there are many types of changes that can occur that include memory loss, eyesight can become impaired, hearing loss, changes with organs; such as the heart, limited sexual capabilities, and depending on how physically fit a person is will also depend on the persons limitations. A person who eats healthy well balanced meals, drinks plenty of water, and exercises regularly can slow down the aging process a little.

There is no way completely reduce the aging process it is inevitable everyone will eventually experience the physical effects as in wrinkles, age spots, and even some health changes the body is going to have are cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and some older adults even find changes in their sense of smell and taste. They also find they have problems with some food or spices that they have eaten most of their lives.

Another reason exercise is important is when a person gets to late adulthood they can experience “on average, by 60 to 70 years of age, 10 to 20 percent of muscle power has been lost” (Berk, 2010). This can keep progressively getting worse the older a person gets, and this can decrease a person’s mobility tremendously.

Exercising and eating right can have a positive effect on the older adulthood it can also help with keeping the brain sharp doing little things like crossword puzzles, playing games that make one think can help with memory loss. It is best if a person starts exercise, and eating healthy well balanced meals in their early adulthood, but it is never too late to get healthy.

 

Reference

Berk, L. E. (2010). Development through the lifespan (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

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Read each statement. Write a 100-word summary explaining how that media piece supports that statement and include reference citations. 1. Find a media piece—article, video, presentation, song, or other—related to the scientific method, creating hypotheses, or designing experiments. Include the link or reference citation for the piece and describe how it helped you better understand how the scientific method is used to create hypotheses and experiments.

UniversityofPhoenixMaterial

 

What Is Life?

 

Read each statement. Write a 100-word summary explaining how that media piece supports that statement and include reference citations.

 

  1. Find a media piece—article, video, presentation, song, or other—related to the scientific method, creating hypotheses, or designing experiments. Include the link or reference citation for the piece and describe how it helped you better understand how the scientific method is used to create hypotheses and experiments.

 

 

  1. Find a media piece—article, video, presentation, song, or other—that recognizes the fundamental concepts of chemistry in biology. Include the link or reference citation for the piece and describe how it helped you better understand how fundamental concepts of chemistry affect biology.

 

 

 

  1. Find a media piece—article, video, presentation, song, or other—that describes the energy metabolism of cells. Include the link or reference citation for the piece and describe how it helped you better understand the energy metabolism of cells.

 

 

 

  1. Find a media piece—article, video, presentation, song, or other—that compares structures and functions of different cell types. Include the link or reference citation for the piece and describe how it helped you better compare structures and functions of different cell types.

 

 

 

  1. Discuss what life means to you after completing questions 1–4.

 

 

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DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and may be regarded as the reserve bank of genetic information. DNA is exclusively responsible for maintaining the identity of different species of organisms. Every aspect of the cellular function is under the control of DNA and is organized into genes, the fundamental units of genetic information.

Running Head: DNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two Functions of DNA and its Structure

Albert F. DeSena

University of Phoenix

BIO/240

Edward Paluch

 

 

Two Functions of DNA and its Structure

            DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and may be regarded as the reserve bank of genetic information.  DNA is exclusively responsible for maintaining the identity of different species of organisms.  Every aspect of the cellular function is under the control of DNA and is organized into genes, the fundamental units of genetic information.

DNA               RNA               PROTIENS

The interrelationship of these three classes of biomolecules constitutes the “central dogma of molecular biology”.  This occurs due to processes like replication, transcription and transition.  DNA the nucleic acid is the polymers of nucleotides.

Nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose, and a phosphate.  Nitrogenous base are of two types- Purines and Pyramids. DNA and RNA contain the same purines, namely Adenine (A), and guanine (G).

The Pyrimidine, cytosine (C) is found in both DNA and RNA.  However, the nucleic acids differ with respect to the second pyrimidine.  DNA contains thymine (t), whereas RNA contains uracil.

ADENINE         GUANINE        CYTOSINE    THYMINE                                      URACIL

DNA has equal numbers of adenine and thymine residues- (A=T), and equal numbers of guanine and cytosine-(G=C).  This is known as Chargaff’s Rule of molar equivalence.

STRUCTURE

The DNA is a right handed double helix.  It contains two poly-deoxynbonucleotide chains twisted around each other on a common axis.  The two strands are anti-parallel, held together by hydrogen bonds.  The hydrogen bonds are formed between purines and pyrimidine only (Base Pairing).  The genetic information resides one of the two strands known as a template strand or sense strand.

 

Cited: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA

PROCESS OF REPLICATION:

Semi-conservative is half of the original DNA is conserved in the daughters DNA.  The imitation of DNA synthesis occurs at a site called the origin of replication:

 

Replication Fork => proof reading formation of DNA polymers =>Replacement of RNA primer by DNA by DNA polymers and enzyme.

TRANSCRIPTION:

Transcription is a process in which ribo-nucleic acids are synthesized from DNA.  One of the two strands of DNA serves as a template and produces working copies of RNA molecules.

 

Translation = protein synthesis.  It involves translation of nucleotide base sequence of mRNA into the language of amino acid sequence.  The protein synthesis requires:

  1. Amino acids
  2. Ribosome’s (huge complex structures).  Each ribosome consists of two sub-units-ones big, and one small.  There are two sites: A site and P site.  A-site is for binding amino tRNA, and P-site for bonding peptidyl tRNA during the course of translation.
  3. Messenger RNA:  The specific information required for the synthesis of a given protein is present on the mRNA.  The DNA has passed on the genetic information in the form of Codons to mRNA to translate into a protein sequence.
  4. Transfer RNA’s (tRNA):  They carry the amino acids and hand them over to the growing peptide chain.  Each tRNA has three nucleotide base sequences:  the anti-codon, which is responsible to recognize the codon of mRNA for protein synthesis.
  5. Energy Source- ATP and GTP
  6. Protein factors

1st step:  activation of amino acid.  Amino acids are activated and attached to tRNA in two step reaction.  The amino acid is first attached to the enzyme utilizing ATP to form enzyme AMP-amino acid complex.  The amino acid is then transferred to the 3’ end of the tRNA form aminoacyl tRNA

  1. A small ribosomal subunit binds to a molecule of mRNa.
  2.  In a prokaryotic cell, the mRNA binding site on this subunit recognizes a specific nucleotide sequence on the mRNA just upstream of the start codon.
  3.  An initiator tRNA, with the anticodon UAC, base-pairs with the start codon, AUG
  4.  This tRNA carries the amino acid Met
  5.  The arrival of a large ribosomal subunit completes the initiation complex.
  6. Proteins called initiation factors are required to bring all the translation components together.
  7. GTP provides the energy for the assembly
  8. The initiator tRNA is in the P site and the A site is available to the tRNA bearing the next amino acid

 

 

Elongation of chain.

  1. Binding of aminoacyl tRNA to A-site

 

Peptide Bond Formation;

The enzyme peptidyltransferase catalyzes the formation of peptide bond.  As the peptide bond formation occurs, the ribosome moves to the next codon of the mRNA.  This process is called translocation, basically involving the movement of growing peptide chains from A-site to P-site.  Translocation requires EF-2 and GTP

Incorporation of amino acid:

 

Termination of translation.  One of the stop or terminal signals (UAA, UAG and UCA) terminals is the growing polypeptide.

CRF recognizes the stop signal =>CRF GTP complex leaves the peptide bond between polypeptide and the tRNA occupying P-site

80’s disassociates into 40’s and 60’s.

The peptide thus formed is responsible for various cellular functions.

Genes carry biological information that must be copied accurately for transmission to the next generation each time a cell divides to form two daughter cells. Two central biological questions arise from these requirements: how can the information for specifying an organism be carried in chemical form, and how is it accurately copied? The discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix was a landmark in twentieth-century biology because it immediately suggested answers to both questions, thereby resolving at the molecular level the problem of heredity.

DNA encodes information through the order, or sequence, of the nucleotides along each strand. Each base—A, C, T, or G—can be considered as a letter in a four-letter alphabet that spells out biological messages in the chemical structure of the DNA.  Organisms differ from one another because their respective DNA molecules have different nucleotide sequences and, consequently, carry different biological messages. As discussed above, it was known well before the structure of DNA was determined that genes contain the instructions for producing proteins. The DNA messages must therefore somehow encode proteins.  This relationship immediately makes the problem easier to understand, because of the chemical character of proteins. The properties of a protein, which are responsible for its biological function, are determined by its three-dimensional structure, and its structure is determined in turn by the linear sequence of the amino acids of which it is composed. The linear sequence of nucleotides in a gene must therefore somehow spell out the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein. The exact correspondence between the four-letter nucleotide alphabet of DNA and the twenty-letter amino acid alphabet of proteins—the genetic code—is not obvious from the DNA structure, and it took over a decade after the discovery of the double helix before it was worked out. This code in detail in the course of elaborating the process, known as gene expression, through which a cell translates the nucleotide sequence of a gene into the amino acid sequence of a protein.

Conclusion

Genetic information is carried in the linear sequence of nucleotides in DNA. Each molecule of DNA is a double helix formed from two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds between G-C and A-T base pairs. Duplication of the genetic information occurs by the use of one DNA strand as a template for formation of a complementary strand. The genetic information stored in an organism’s DNA contains the instructions for all the proteins the organism will ever synthesize. In eukaryotes, DNA is contained in the cell nucleus.

References

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26821/

http://suite101.com/article/structure-and-function-of-dna

http://users.soe.ucsc.edu/~sugnet/documentation/biology_starter/DNA.html

 

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The evolution lab report is based the theory of Darwin and Wallace and determining the type of seeds the birds feed on an average rainfall in the island of Galapagos. The birds in this experiment live on the island and survival is not easy and it is baking hot during the day, freezing cold at night and there isn’t much food available. Because of this, the birds have very specialized feeding behaviors.

Running head:  EVOLUTION LAB REPORT ON FINCHES

The Evolution of Finches Lab

Albert DeSena
University of Phoenix

Bio/101

Lindsey DeLuca

November 18, 2011

 

Evolution Lab

The evolution lab report is based the theory of Darwin and Wallace and determining the type of seeds the birds feed on an average rainfall in the island of Galapagos.  The birds in this experiment live on the island and survival is not easy and it is baking hot during the day, freezing cold at night and there isn’t much food available.  Because of this, the birds have very specialized feeding behaviors.

An example of evolution resulting from natural selection was discovered among birds living in the Galapagos Island. These birds have varieties that vary in what they eat and their appearance.  The specialization developed allowed the birds to survive during the dry season or times of drought/low precipitation when little food is available.  Then this specialized tool allows the birds to better compete for food resources with other birds and animals.

The objective of this experiment is to differentiate and determine what happen when the parameters are changed over time between the Darwin and Wallace report. The first experiment is meant to study the influence of beak size on the birds’ population numbers.  Deep breaks are suited to crack hard seeds, and shallow beaks are better suited for cracking soft seeds. To test out the hypothesis, I was able to change the beak size of Darwin to 17.0mm and let Wallace Island at 12.0mm.  By doing so, the average beak size rose over time whereas it fluctuates for Wallace.  The clutch size was changed from 10 eggs to 30 eggs for Darwin and left at 10 eggs for Wallace as well as population of 600 and 200 respectively. I also wondered about the changes of bird beaks from island to island.  When I changed the cm on the beak, I was able to conclude that these numbers help them adapt to the island and make them more fit to survival on available food.

 

The material that was used to create this hypothesis was accessed through the Evolution Lab on the student website. I was able to change the clutch size as well as the beak because I felt that those where the most important aspects of these experiment.  The determine reason for this according to the Darwin and Wallace, is the difference in temperature between summer and winter and the associated consequences for the life of the birds. The different approach that I used for the clutch size was related to biological characteristics, such as the body weight or environmental factors such as climate.  I was able to input the two sizes into the data to come up with the results as far as how the population grows with each size.

 

================

Input Parameters

================

 

Parameter          DARWIN       WALLACE

——————————————-

Initial Beak Size: 17.0 mm      12.0 mm

Heritability:      0.7          0.7

Variance:          2.0          2.0

Clutch Size:       30.0 eggs    10.0 eggs

Precipitation:     27.0 cm      27.0 cm

Population:        600.0 birds  200.0 birds

Island Size:       1.0 km       1.0 km

 

====================

Experimental Results

====================

 

Year  Dar Beak  Dar Pop  |  Wal Beak  Wal Pop

————————-+——————-

1997   17.08     600     |   12.05     200

1998   17.08     2142    |   12.11     273

1999   17.2      833     |   12.16     401

2000   17.35     2127    |   12.27     447

2001   17.46     866     |   12.37     610

2002   17.69     1875    |   12.47     651

2003   17.89     1096    |   12.57     650

2004   18.0      1924    |   12.49     746

2005   18.08     1149    |   12.65     791

2006   18.11     1727    |   12.84     803

2007   18.2      1280    |   13.02     788

2008   18.27     1885    |   13.25     742

2009   18.43     1100    |   13.32     774

2010   18.64     1999    |   13.33     726

2011   18.72     1097    |   13.48     734

2012   18.72     1974    |   13.63     767

2013   18.85     1063    |   13.59     883

2014   18.95     1960    |   13.69     872

2015   18.98     1225    |   13.82     816

2016   19.1      2039    |   13.96     806

2017   19.16     1035    |   14.11     815

2018   19.27     2030    |   14.16     805

2019   19.31     1042    |   14.34     859

2020   19.37     2020    |   14.47     803

2021   19.41     1149    |   14.59     908

2022   19.46     2010    |   14.69     1003

2023   19.54     1108    |   14.9      960

2024   19.54     2090    |   15.09     984

2025   19.65     1000    |   15.31     956

2026   19.77     2150    |   15.37     1049

2027   19.84     1022    |   15.41     950

2028   19.94     2141    |   15.56     974

2029   20.03     1028    |   15.67     961

2030   20.07     2196    |   15.9      1024

2031   20.1      924     |   16.08     1090

2032   20.15     2230    |   16.12     989

2033   20.11     897     |   16.23     1051

2034   20.13     2257    |   16.33     1062

2035   20.21     877     |   16.5      1052

2036   20.24     2286    |   16.59     1052

2037   20.23     865     |   16.72     1094

2038   20.29     2236    |   16.83     1097

2039   20.34     964     |   16.97     1145

2040   20.37     2261    |   17.07     1133

2041   20.48     916     |   17.2      1133

2042   20.52     2251    |   17.25     1081

2043   20.57     958     |   17.37     1052

2044   20.61     2331    |   17.5      1095

2045   20.66     847     |   17.64     1082

2046   20.74     2362    |   17.78     1139

2047   20.85     861     |   17.9      1060

2048   20.88     2518    |   17.91     1097

2049   20.82     703     |   18.04     1160

2050   20.77     2250    |   18.16     1238

2051   20.73     964     |   18.3      1220

2052   20.82     2231    |   18.37     1211

2053   20.92     930     |   18.55     1135

2054   20.96     2302    |   18.72     1271

2055   21.1      913     |   18.85     1284

2056   21.2      2254    |   18.87     1189

2057   21.28     902     |   18.96     1224

2058   21.29     2392    |   19.09     1210

2059   21.28     760     |   19.23     1282

2060   21.28     2463    |   19.34     1150

2061   21.29     735     |   19.38     1196

2062   21.38     2416    |   19.39     1265

2063   21.52     780     |   19.47     1299

2064   21.5      2431    |   19.49     1268

2065   21.51     824     |   19.5      1348

2066   21.53     2457    |   19.55     1249

2067   21.65     758     |   19.62     1312

2068   21.73     2583    |   19.65     1216

2069   21.71     672     |   19.85     1184

2070   21.75     2334    |   19.85     1291

2071   21.66     870     |   19.97     1248

2072   21.68     2375    |   20.06     1168

2073   21.73     869     |   20.12     1319

2074   21.77     2302    |   20.14     1316

2075   21.77     894     |   20.24     1230

2076   21.74     2400    |   20.32     1313

2077   21.77     885     |   20.4      1328

2078   21.76     2316    |   20.39     1297

2079   21.78     911     |   20.41     1343

2080   21.78     2410    |   20.45     1339

2081   21.83     776     |   20.44     1299

2082   21.81     2550    |   20.49     1286

2083   21.8      712     |   20.6      1303

2084   21.88     2356    |   20.69     1234

2085   21.88     927     |   20.75     1328

2086   21.87     2318    |   20.65     1347

2087   21.87     856     |   20.66     1405

2088   21.89     2396    |   20.64     1296

2089   21.9      875     |   20.7      1327

2090   21.93     2161    |   20.7      1341

2091   22.0      997     |   20.74     1405

2092   22.04     2458    |   20.69     1328

2093   22.07     781     |   20.79     1246

2094   22.09     2350    |   20.81     1344

2095   22.24     854     |   20.83     1272

2096   22.36     2432    |   20.88     1293

2088   21.98     2146    |   20.6      1312

2089   22.07     1051    |   20.69     1368

2090   22.14     2286    |   20.71     1260

2091   22.19     880     |   20.83     1323

2092   22.2      2386    |   20.87     1316

2093   22.24     869     |   20.99     1336

2094   22.33     2388    |   20.96     1420

2095   22.46     839     |   20.97     1355

2096   22.52     2362    |   20.95     1389

 

In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted in the fact the environmental factors plays a huge role in the survival of the birds.  The clutch size is very important in determining whether the population of the birds goes extinct on either island.  Clutch size is the number of eggs that a female bird lays in her nest and in these experiment, birds mate for life and live for one year and each female produces only one clutch of eggs per year.

 

 

References

http://www.biologylabsonline.com/axia/EvolutionLab/

http://www.biologylabsonline.com/axia/EvolutionLab/backround information

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Various forms of Trait Theories have been studied as being associated with Juvenile Delinquencies. “Developmental Theory is a view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics. Developmental factors include biological, social, and psychological structures and processes (Larry Siegel 2011).”

Running Header: CAUSES FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deborah Llamas

Kaplan University

Independent Study in Juvenile Delinquency

Professor Val Mertens

September 20, 2011

 

Introduction:

Various forms of Trait Theories have been studied as being associated with Juvenile

Delinquencies.  “Developmental Theory is a view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics. Developmental factors include biological, social, and psychological structures and processes (Larry Siegel 2011).”

However, the following questions remain:

What propels youths to commit crimes?

Complex influences of a variety of biological, genetic, and environmental factors, and

Further complicated; by various reactions to environmental factors.  Are these theories

actually proven?

Why is it that only a few individuals who experience the same environments as many others actually commit crime?

Criminological theories provide a scientific way to approach and understand why

Juveniles commit crimes.  The following factors have been reasons for many debates:

Criminological Criterion: 1)   Classical School Theories-Focus on individual free will and our ability to make choices as the central explanation for committing delinquency/crime (Bohm/Vogel 2011).  2)  Positive School Theories- Embraces determinism and scientific method: Additionally, recognizing the role of forces that individuals cannot control or may not be aware of on crime and the role of science to discover what these factors are the positive school has 3 basic approaches: biological, psychological, and sociological.

Why do Juveniles commit crime?

Based on the Positive School Theory, the following factors apply:

I.            Genetic processing of criminal tendencies.

II.            Hormonal imbalances.

III.            Neurological dysfunction.

IV.            Developmental Theory (Biosocial Theories).

V.            Environmental factors “age, sex, gender, and social status” (Lee Ellis 2011).

Complex Influences:

Criminal offenses according to the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting System (UCR),

Crime is determined in one of two ways: A) Part I Crimes: According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) are the most serious crimes reported by law enforcement officials. Commit serious property crime.  B)  Part II Crimes: Have less similarity in their reporting by each agency and represent the less serious (City of Eugene. 2010).  Additionally, patterns of offending can be identified through the identification of behaviors related to offending directions determining the criminal pathways, and how many Juveniles adhere to criminal behavior when they get older (Keith Soothill & Brian Francis & Rachel Fligelstone (nd).

Differences in Juveniles who commit crime compared to others of the same environment, ethnic background:

Juveniles who commit criminal activities, do it for various reasons, including the

following: greed, anger, jealously, revenge, or pride.  Although, some juveniles calculate a crime and carefully plan everything in advance to increase gain and decrease risk. They are making choices about their criminal behavior; even considering a life of crime better than obtaining a regular job- firmly believing that a life of crime has greater rewards, admiration, and excitement, until the point they are apprehended. Others may get a rush of adrenaline when successfully carrying out a dangerous crime. Others commit crimes on impulse, out of rage or fear.  Other Juveniles, who do not commit criminal activities, may have had the opportunity for a better education, no experience of domestic violence in the home, and been completely sheltered against any outside criminal influences.

Conclusion:

Despite the fact that various studies have been conducted related to Juvenile delinquencies, and proceeding through to adult age; however, the finalization is the fact that all Juveniles/adults, do maintain the choice of free will.   Their ability to determine if they want to pursue a life of crime or avoid it by all cost is a choice of free will.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Page

Bohm/Vogel. (2011). A Primer on Crime and Delinquency Theory.

City of Eugene. (2010).  Eugene Police Crime Statistics. City of Eugene Crime Statistics.

Retrieved September 20, 2011. From:

http://www.eugeneor.gov/portal/server.pt?space=CommunityPage&control=SetCommuni

ty&CommunityID=320&PageID=0

Ellis. L. (2011). A Theory Explaining Biological Correlates of Criminality. European Journal of

Criminology. Retrieved September 20, 2011. From:

http://euc.sagepub.com/content/2/3/287.short

Seigel L. J. (2011). Criminology: The core (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Soothill. K. & Francis. B.  & Fligelstone. R. (nd).   Patterns of offending behaviour: a new

Approach. Home Office.  Retrieved September 20, 2011, From:

http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/13452/1/r171.pdf

 

 

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How does this system or organ function? What role does it play in overall health?

Brain Structures and their Functions

 

 

 

How does this system or organ function? What role does it play in overall health?

 

 

 

–                    The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem.

–                    The cererbrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called “lobes”: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Here is a visual representation of the cortex:

–                   
What do each of these lobes do?

–                    Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving

–                    Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli

–                    Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing

–                    Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

–                    The cerebellum, or “little brain”, is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.

–                    The limbic system, often referred to as the “emotional brain”, is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old.

This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain:

 

–                    Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the “simplest” part of human brains because animals’ entire brains, such as reptiles (who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem. Look at a good example of this here.

The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Click on the words to learn what these structures do:

 

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From the beginning of time, when cavemen walked the earth, humans have hunted animals. It is a past time in many cultures and predates all social activities that we enjoy today. Along with this though comes the debate as to whether or not hunting is helpful or hurtful to the environment.

Melissa Kryston

April 15th, 2012

BIO-220 Environmental Science

Professor Kambiz Alavian

Hunting Ourselves

From the beginning of time, when cavemen walked the earth, humans have hunted animals. It is a past time in many cultures and predates all social activities that we enjoy today. Along with this though comes the debate as to whether or not hunting is helpful or hurtful to the environment. Both sides have good arguments and statistics to back their stance. In this paper, I will discuss how hunting is harmful to the environment because it is only done for sport and not for survival[K1] , unbalances an ecosystem, endangers once plentiful species and will eventually diminish the circle of life that we as humans depend on for survival.

When humans walked the earth with grumbling stomachs armed with their spears and other handmade tools, they sought out animals to hunt for food. Today, humans drive their grumbling stomachs to the nearest drive-thru and order a cheeseburger rather than spearing a cow. Animals that were once hunted for food are not near as sporting and extravagant as the ones that humans hunt today. For survival, it made sense to hunt what was plentiful and easiest to catch such as rabbits. Now of course, rabbits are still hunted today, but humans have moved on to bigger and better prizes to mount on their walls. Now cavemen and even Indians also sported their kills in their wardrobe such as a lion’s head for a headdress the same as people today have their kills stuffed and mounted to show off their hunting skills. But to hear an Indian chief tell the story of how he killed the lion for survival as he was to be eaten by it, he does not make it sound like a story of sport and fun. You never hear someone this day in age tell a hunting story where they were not dressed in camouflage, armed with a gun or bow and contain the statement, “thankfully I had my gun handy so I could shoot it or that elephant would have eaten me.” All jokes aside, it is clear that humans do not hunt to determine whether they live or die any more. The technology that we have developed in food processing has made hunting obsolete as a necessity for survival. Food is readily accessible at every street corner and in every shape, size and flavor. So it is obvious that hunting is done for sport, hobby and recreation rather than to continue the life of our species.

Hunting is bad for the environment because it throws off the balance of the ecosystem. Animals depend on each other for survival throughout the circle of life from the very bottom level of moss and algae to the top level of jaguars and humans. [K2] It is a natural course of life for larger animals to eat smaller animals and for the smaller animals to feed off of plants and insects. Each level depends on the higher levels for population control and the lower levels for food and energy. If we kill off too many of the smaller animals such as rabbits and squirrels, then the larger animals have nothing to feed on in turn killing off the larger animals as well or having to battle it out with the levels of the food chain that are higher than them for survival. We are at the top so eventually the animals could turn on us without any other food source keeping them satisfied. Once the food chain is weakened it will slowly kill off other species that are not even being hunted because we are hunting their food source. Animals that are being hunted are also needed to control populations of other animals. When the population of a smaller animal is diminished that feeds on a certain type of insect that is harmful to crops, then we lose crops that we need for survival. So as it works its way down the chain, eventually we are the ones to suffer. Now those that are in favor play to the flip side of the coin stating that by hunting they are controlling populations that could get out of control and affect human life. Hunters also tend to favor certain animals to hunt and search for the ideal ecosystem that they live in. Now if the hunter enjoys hunting rabbits, then he is not going to want to hunt in an area where there are a lot of predators that feed on rabbits. Whit Gibbons even states in his article from 2003 about why hunting is good for the environment, “Of course, what makes a “good” forest for a hunter may be different from what other groups consider a “good” environment, and compromises must be made to accommodate all of them. Nonetheless, the time has come when hunters must become involved in partnerships with other groups who have an equally fervent interest in maintaining healthy habitats of forests, streams, and small wetlands.” He even admits that compromises are made. He also admits that hunters need to team up with environmentalists in order to keep ecosystems healthy. Not to mention, the environment has controlled its own populations within the food chain long before we came along, so who appointed us to take over what is already being done naturally? This goes with the old adage, do not fix what is not broken. If we left well enough alone, the ecosystems will balance themselves out on their own.

Hunting is bad for the environment because it is causing several animals to become extinct that we should be protecting and preserving because once they are gone, they are gone forever. We have laws, fines and strict guidelines to every hunting season such as for how long it lasts, the type of animal you can hunt and the consequences for breaking any laws associated with hunting. The laws are not effective because there are still animals that are being put on the endangered species list due to excessive hunting and hunters not following the rules. The game wardens cannot be in all places at once. There are extreme hunters out there that go for the exotic animals such as the Bengal tiger, the ivory from elephants and whales that are causing them to become endangered above more common animals such as the white-tailed deer. Since the exotic animals are endangered it makes them harder to catch and worth that much more money to the greedy hunters that lust for them. When there is a price on an animal’s head such as for ivory, is it necessary to kill off an entire species for the almighty dollar? When all of the elephants are gone, what will those hunters hunt next to keep their money flowing in? Eventually, there will be nothing left to hunt. We will then hunt each other or just sit back hoping that they will magically reappear? The opposing side feels that the laws, regulations and restrictions that are on every hunting season is enough to deter any situation that would lead to animals becoming endangered or extinct. My question to those that believe that hunting is beneficial to the environment would be, how has the laws worked out so far? There are still animals being added to the endangered species list, while in the shadows when the game warden’s back is turned are still being hunted and killing off entire species.

Hunting is bad for the environment because it will eventually lead to us hunting ourselves if we kill everything else. All of the things that I have discussed thus far will lead to the demise of the human species since we are at the top of the food chain as well as the ones that are causing all of the problems by hunting for sheer sport[K3] . We are at the top of the food chain, so if we keep taking out links that will eventually cause other weaker links to diminish, then what will become of us? How will we eat? Are we to just live on a planet with no animals that is overrun with plants and insects? We used to have to hunt to survive and it was the only way to survive. Technology has grown tremendously in the fields of farming and food processing that it is no longer a necessity to hunt to live. This may be an exaggerated situation, but I will ask this question again, what were to happen if we killed off each species one by one from hunting them to the point that there were no animals left and we did nothing to prevent or preserve it? Do we hunt humans to survive at that point? Now, the opposing side would so that I am over exaggerating the whole situation and that it could never get taken that far. They think that science and common sense will prevent this from ever happening. Humans are naturally greedy and want to do everything better, quicker and for more money. Take baseball for example. Baseball is America’s past time sport and did not used to be all about fortune, fame and pumping your body full of steroids. It used to be about talent, families enjoying America’s past time together and friendly rivalries. What is going to stop our greed for more money and more adrenaline with hunting? Hunters will always crave a bigger kill that is worth more money. And to what expense will this greed be satisfied? Who exactly is going to stop the greedy?

I am a well pronounced adrenaline junkie, but I do not get my kicks by killing an animal nor will I ever support hunting of any kind. In order for me to be willing to kill an animal, I would have to be in a situation where only one of us is walking away alive. I have several friends that are avid hunters and I turn a deaf ear when they begin to tell their hunting tales. Those that think that hunting is good for the environment use their arguments of population control and the fact that the tax money goes to federal and state governments to enhance wildlife habitats to somehow validate their argument. They are failing. There are too many arguments that are against hunting in order for them to convince anyone that what they say and believe is right. I think that the next time that a hunter feels the need to hunt, he should jump out of an airplane for an adrenaline rush and then go and enjoy a double quarter pounder with cheese from a local fast food restaurant. [K4]

 

 

 

 

References

Hunting Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2012, from

 

http://www.idausa.org/facts/hunting.html

 

Davis, B. (2009). Does Hunting Help or Hurt the Environment. Retrieved March 18, 2012, from

 

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=earth-talks-hunting

 

Ways Hunting is Bad for the Environment. (2012). Retrieved March 18, 2012, from

http://www.oakridgemicro.com/ways-hunting-is-bad-for-the-environment/

 

Gibbons, W. (2003). Why is Hunting Good for the Environment?. Retrieved March 18, 2012,       from

http://srel.uga.edu/ecoviews/ecoview031117.htm

[K5]


 [K1]In a minority of cases it is done for survival.

 [K2]This can also be used against your arguments since humans are considered carnivores as well as herbivores. The point you are making is valid but you could have made it more clear that the excessive hunting is what is considered bad for the environment. Although some people may feel morally obliged not to hunt at all.

 [K3]Very good.

 [K4]The paper is very good and your conclusion is more reasonable than most solutions out there. The weakness of the paper is the references, which need to be cited in the text.

 [K5]References are good but they need to be cited properly in the text.

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Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Almost immediately he began secretly building up Germany’s army and weapons. In 1934 he increased the size of the army, began building warships and created a German airforce. Compulsory military service was also introduced.

Q:What 4 reasons led to world war II?

 

Ans.

Hitler’s Actions

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Almost immediately he began secretly building up Germany’s army and weapons. In 1934 he increased the size of the army, began building warships and created a German airforce. Compulsory military service was also introduced.

Although Britain and France were aware of Hitler’s actions, they were also concerned about the rise of Communism and believed that a stronger Germany might help to prevent the spread of Communism to the West.

In 1936 Hitler ordered German troops to enter the Rhineland. At this point the German army was not very strong and could have been easily defeated. Yet neither France nor Britain was prepared to start another war.

Hitler also made two important alliances during 1936. The first was called the Rome-Berlin Axis Pact and allied Hitler’s Germany with Mussolini’s Italy. The second was called the Anti-Comitern Pact and allied Germany with Japan.

Hitler’s next step was to begin taking back the land that had been taken away from Germany. In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. The Austrian leader was forced to hold a vote asking the people whether they wanted to be part of Germany.

The results of the vote were fixed and showed that 99% of Austrian people wanted Anschluss (union with Germany). The Austrian leader asked Britain, France and Italy for aid. Hitler promised that Anschluss was the end of his expansionist aims and not wanting to risk war, the other countries did nothing.

Hitler was not a man of his word and in March 1939 invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. Despite calls for help from the Czechoslovak government, neither Britain nor France was prepared to take military action against Hitler. However, some action was now necessary and believing that Poland would be Hitler’s next target, both Britain and France promised that they would take military action against Hitler if he invaded Poland. Chamberlain believed that, faced with the prospect of war against Britain and France, Hitler would stop his aggression. Chamberlain was wrong. German troops invaded Poland on 1st September 1939.

 

Problems with the Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles was neither lenient enough to appease Germany, nor harsh enough to prevent it from becoming the dominant continental power again. The treaty placed the blame, or “war guilt” on Germany and Austria-Hungary, and punished them for their “responsibility” rather than working out an agreement that would assure long-term peace. The treaty resulted in harsh monetary reparations, separated millions of ethnic Germans into neighboring countries, territorial dismemberment, caused mass ethnic resettlement and caused hyperinflation of the German currency – see inflation in the Weimar Republic. The Weimar Republic printed trillions of marks and borrowed heavily from the United States (to later default) to pay war reparations to Britain and France, who still carried war debt from World War I.

The treaty created bitter resentment towards the victors of World War I, who had promised the people of Germany that U.S. PresidentWoodrow Wilson‘s Fourteen Points would be a guideline for peace; however, the US played a minor role in World War I and Wilson could not convince the Allies to agree to adopt his Fourteen Points. Many Germans felt that the German government had agreed to an armisticebased on this understanding, while others felt that the German Revolution of 1918–1919 had been orchestrated by the “November criminals” who later assumed office in the new Weimar Republic.

Contributing to this, following the Armistice of 1918, Allied forces, including those of the American Army, occupied the Rhineland as far east as the river with some small bridgeheads on the east bank at places like Cologne. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 the occupation was continued. The treaty specified three occupation Zones, which were due to be evacuated by Allied troops five, ten and finally 15 years after the formal ratification of the treaty, which took place in 1920, thus the occupation was intended to last until 1935. In fact, the last Allied troops left Germany five years prior to that date in 1930 in a good-will reaction to the Weimar Republic’s policy of reconciliation in the era of Gustav Stresemann and the Locarno Pact. The German colonies were taken during the war, and Italy took the southern half of Tyrol after an armistice had been agreed upon. The war in the east ended with the collapse of Russian Empire, and German troops occupied (with varying degree of control) large parts of Eastern and Central Europe. After the destructive and indecisive battle of Jutland (1916) and the mutiny of its sailors in 1917, The Kaiserliche Marine spent most of the war in port, only to be turned over to the allies and scuttled at surrender by its own officers. The lack of an obvious military defeat was one of the pillars that held together the Dolchstosslegende and gave the Nazis another tool at their disposal.

An opposite view of the treaty held by some is that it did not go far enough in permanently neutering the capability of Germany to be a great power by dividing Germany into smaller, less powerful states. In effect, this would have undone Bismarck‘s work and would have accomplished what the French delegation at the Paris Peace Conference wanted. However, this could have had any number of unforeseeable consequences, especially amidst the rise of communism. Regardless, the Treaty of Versailles is generally agreed to have been a very poor treaty which helped the rise of the Nazi Party.

Failure of Appeasement

Appeasement means giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable. During the 1930s, many politicians in both Britain and France came to see that the terms of the Treaty of Versailles had placed restrictions on Germany that were unfair. Hitler’s actions were seen as understandable and justifiable.

When Germany began re-arming in 1934, many politicians felt that Germany had a right to re-arm in order to protect herself. It was also argued that a stronger Germany would prevent the spread of Communism to the west.

In 1936, Hitler argued that because France had signed a new treaty with Russia, Germany was under threat from both countries and it was essential to German security that troops were stationed in the Rhineland. France was not strong enough to fight Germany without British help and Britain was not prepared to go to war at this point. Furthermore, many believed that since the Rhineland was a part of Germany it was reasonable that German troops should be stationed there.

In May 1937, Neville Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. He believed that the Treaty of Versailles had treated Germany badly and that there were a number of issues associated with the Treaty that needed to be put right. He felt that giving in to Hitler’s demands would prevent another war.

This policy, adopted by Chamberlain’s government became known as the policy of Appeasement.

The most notable example of appeasement was the Munich Agreement of September 1938. The Munich Agreement, signed by the leaders of Germany, Britain, France and Italy, agreed that the Sudetenland would be returned to Germany and that no further territorial claims would be made by Germany. The Czech government was not invited to the conference and protested about the loss of the Sudetenland. They felt that they had been betrayed by both Britain and France with whom alliances had been made. However, the Munich Agreement was generally viewed as a triumph and an excellent example of securing peace through negotiation rather than war.

This famous picture shows Chamberlain returning from Munich with the paper signed by Hitler declaring ‘Peace in our time.’

When Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, he broke the terms of the Munich Agreement. Although it was realised that the policy of appeasement had failed, Chamberlain was still not prepared to take the country to war over “..a quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing.” Instead, he made a guarantee to come to Poland’s aid if Hitler invaded Poland.

 

Failure of the League of Nations

The League of Nations was an international organisation set up in 1919 to help keep world peace. It was intended that all countries would be members of the League and that if there were disputes between countries they could be settled by negotiation rather than by force. If this failed then countries would stop trading with the aggressive country and if that failed then countries would use their armies to fight.

In theory the League of Nations was a good idea and did have some early successes. But ultimately it was a failure.

The whole world was hit by a depression in the late 1920s. A depression is when a country’s economy falls. Trade is reduced, businesses lose income, prices fall and unemployment rises.

In 1931, Japan was hit badly by the depression. People lost faith in the government and turned to the army to find a solution. The army invaded Manchuria in China, an area rich in minerals and resources. China appealed to the League for help. The Japanese government were told to order the army to leave Manchuria immediately. However, the army took no notice of the government and continued its conquest of Manchuria.

The League then called for countries to stop trading with Japan but because of the depression many countries did not want to risk losing trade and did not agree to the request. The League then made a further call for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan’s response was to leave the League of Nations.

In October 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. The Abyssinians did not have the strength to withstand an attack by Italy and appealed to the League of Nations for help.

The League condemned the attack and called on member states to impose trade restrictions with Italy. However, the trade restrictions were not carried out because they would have little effect. Italy would be able to trade with non-member states, particularly America. Furthermore, Britain and France did not want to risk Italy making an attack on them.

In order to stop Italy’s aggression, the leaders of Britain and France held a meeting and decided that Italy could have two areas of land in Abyssinia provided that there were no further attacks on the African country. Although Mussolini accepted the plan, there was a public outcry in Britain and the plan was dropped.

 

 

 

The main reasons for the failure of the League of Nations can be summarised into the following points:

1.Not all countries joined the League:

Although the idea for the League of Nations had come from Woodrow Wilson, there was a change of government in the United States before the signing of the treaty and the new Republican government refused to join. As a punishment for having started World War One, Germany was not allowed to join and Russia was also excluded due to a growing fear of Communism. Other countries decided not to join and some joined but later left.

2.The league had no power

The main weapon of the League was to ask member countries to stop trading with an aggressive country. However, this did not work because countries could still trade with non-member countries. When the world was hit by depression in the late 1920s countries were reluctant to lose trading partners to other non-member countries.

3.The League had no army.

Soldiers were to be supplied by member countries. However, countries were reluctant to get involved and risk provoking an aggressive country into taking direct action against them and failed to provide troops.

4.Unable to act quickly.

The Council of the League of Nations only met four times a year and decisions had to be agreed by all nations. When countries called for the League to intervene, the League had to set up an emergency meeting, hold discussions and gain the agreement of all members. This process meant that the League could not act quickly to stop an act of aggression.