what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

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Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would have predicted for this cross? What phenotypic ratio did you expect when you crossed two individuals from the F1 generation?

BIOS140:  Week 3 iLab – Mendelian Genetics (Fly Lab)

Name:  Adriana Arroyo

NOTE:  Save document as:  Lab3_FIRSTNAME_LASTNAME.docx, using your name in the filename.   This document is 3 pages.

Purpose:  The purpose of this lab is to simulate basic principles of genetic inheritance by designing and performing crosses with the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

  • In this experiment, you will use The FlyLab to determine if a characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster is dominant or recessive to the wild type phenotype.
  • Review the video tutorials in the Week 3 Lecture on (Single Trait Crosses, Two Trait Crosses and Independent Assortment).
  • Please contact me if you have any questions.

Results and Discussion:

PART 1

Experiment A.  wt ♀  x   wt

What is the ratio of male to female offspring?  Is this what you expected to see?  Why or why not?

(5 pts)

The ratio is 1.000:1.082.  I did expect their male ratio be higher because males are usually the dominant ones.  In addition there were 526 males and only 486 females.

Experiment B.  wt ♀  x   (sepia)

Data:  3 pts

Experiment B Number wild type (+) Number Sepia (SE)  
F1 Generation 7423 2435  
F2 Generation 4974 5057 1.000:1.017

 

Is sepia eye color dominant or recessive to wild type?      Why? (2 pts)

Sepia eye color is recessive because wild type eyes are the normal in fruit flies.  But if you cross two sepia eye color flies, sepia would be dominant.

Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would have predicted for this cross?   What phenotypic ratio did you expect when you crossed two individuals from the F1 generation? (2 pts)

Yes because fruit flies are wild types.  Since all F1 offspring are heterozygous, they are wild types which makes sepia eye color recessive.

PART 2

You will now perform 4 genetic crosses where you chose the mutant phenotype.  Include in the information below the mutation that you have chosen.  Include the name of the mutant phenotype and its abbreviation.  For example, the phenotype of Sable Body has an abbreviation of:  “S.”  The Fly Lab has a listing of all Genetic Abbreviations for reference.   When you chose a mutant phenotype as you design your fly, the abbreviation for the mutation will be indicated.

 

Experiment C.  wt ♀  x   (white)

Data:  3 pts

Experiment C Number wild type (+) # (White Eye color)

(W)

   
F11 Generation 743 246    
F2 Generation 774 239 Ratio: 3.238:1.000

 

Is white dominant or recessive to wild type? Why? (2 pts)

White eye color is recessive because all fruit flies are wild type eye colors.  If there two fruit flies with the same dominant color then you can get a white eye color.

Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would have predicted for this cross?   What phenotypic ratio did you expect when you crossed two individuals from the F1 generation? (2 pts)

Yes because fruit flies are wild types.  Since all F1 offspring are heterozygous, they are wild types which makes white eye color recessive.

Experiment D.  wt ♀  x   (Miniature)

Data:  3 pts

Experiment D Number wild type (+) # (wing size)

(M)

 
F1 Generation 482 481  
F2 Generation 803 235 Ratio: 3.417:1.000

 

Is Miniature Wing Size dominant or recessive to wild type?  Why? (2 pts)

Miniature wing size is recessive because

Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would have predicted for this cross?   What phenotypic ratio did you expect when you crossed two individuals from the F1 generation? (2 pts)

Yes because fruit flies are wild types.  Since all F1 offspring are heterozygous, they are wild type which makes miniature wing size recessive.

Experiment E.  wt ♀  x   (Yellow)

Data:  3 pts

Experiment E Number wild type (+) # (body color) (Y)  
F1 Generation 761 254  
F2 Generation 724 253 Ratio: 2.862:1.000

 

Is Yellow Body Color dominant or recessive to wild type? Why? (2 pts)

Yellow body color is recessive because it is a sex-linked recessive gene.

Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would have predicted for this cross?   What phenotypic ratio did you expect when you crossed two individuals from the F1 generation? (2 pts)

Yes because fruit flies are wild types.  Since yellow body color is sex linked recessive gene, wild type color is produced by dominant allele.

Experiment F.  wt ♀  x   (stubble)

Data:  3 pts

Experiment F Number wild type (+) # (bristle) (Sb)  
F1 Generation 469 476  
F2 Generation 491 515 Ratio: 1.000:1.049

 

Is Stubble Bristle dominant or recessive to wild type? Why? (2 pts)

Stubble bristle is the dominant because it is in a heterozygous state but also lethal alleles.

Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would have predicted for this cross?   What phenotypic ratio did you expect when you crossed two individuals from the F1 generation? (2 pts)

No because fruit flies are wild types.  All fruit flies have homozygous recessive lethal alleles but are dominant in heterozygous state.

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Analyze the basic technology underlying health care information systems and determine the most pressing need for innovation.

Running head: TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT                                                        1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAME: Adetokunbo Olatona

INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Harold Griffin

COURSE TITLE: Health Information System (HSA 520)

DATE: January 21st, 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           2

Analyze the basic technology underlying health care information systems and determine the most pressing need for innovation.

Health information systems (HIS) are information management systems that capture and display data related to the delivery of health care services. An HIS is not just a system of computers and software;it includes clinical guidelines, medical terminology dictionaries, and interfaces the various diagnostic devices and other clinical and business information databases, such as laboratory, pharmacy and diagnostic imaging. It is also used for public health and medical research purposes. The basic technology underlying health care information systems are discussed below:

Subject-Based Systems

The most well-known type of health information system is the electronic medical record (EMR) or electronic health record (EHR), which is the electronic equivalent of a patient’s paper chart. The EHR is a subject-based system that captures and stores information based on a patient’s name or medical record number. It may also display information based on a physician’s name. For example, a physician can view lists of all her patients who are currently in the hospital.

The Master Patient Index (MPI) is also a subject-based system. It lists all the patients who have ever been treated in a hospital or clinic. Typically, the MPI system serves as the foundation database for all other patient-related systems, both clinical and administrative, such as patient scheduling, medical records, billing, claims processing and business decision support (Robin, 1999).

 

 

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           3

Task-Based Systems

Task-based systems are those that capture and report information about specific health care-related tasks such as laboratory, diagnostic imaging and medication management

(pharmacy) systems. These systems are driven by the MPI system and they capture information and copy it to the electronic health record system.

Care Access Internet Systems

In term of Deployment, internet technology was the second highest ranked priority of respondents to the 2002 HIMSS leadership survey. Promotion and marketing of services is the most widely used internet application, followed by employee recruitment and provision of consumer health information (Glandon et al, 2008). Electronic health records give providers and patients easy access to timely health information. Using secure internet portal systems, patients can: view their medical records, including test results; update their demographic information; schedule an appointment; request a prescription refill, or communicate with the doctor or nurse. Research conducted by the University of Colorado Hospital found that internet access systems are most effective for patients with chronic conditions, such as diabetes, or those who have had organ transplants need to continuously manage their health.

Care access portals also allow physicians to remotely monitor patients with chronic conditions such as heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Small self-adhesive wireless electronic devices, some as small as a bandage that can be attached to a patient’s chest directly over the heart to monitor heart, respiratory rates and fluid levels. Data is transmitted by via a secure portal system to the patient’s electronic medical record and, if

 

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           4

necessary, to a physician’s smart phone so that the patient’s condition can be monitored in real time (Robin, 1999).

Administrative Health Care Services

Administrative health care systems extract information from clinical systems and use it to manage daily operations, such as scheduling appointments and billing insurance carriers or patients for services rendered.

Decision support systems extract data from various clinical and administrative systems and compile it in various ways to identify trends, analyze costs, or solve problem areas in operations. For example, an increase in the number of patients with a diagnosis of adult onset diabetes (Type II diabetes) may indicate that a health care provider must expand its diabetes education services (Stephen et al, 2007).

The most pressing need for innovation is the internet system. There is a key need to develop a practical mechanism for the delivery of timely and high-quality research-based evidence to inform clinical and purchasing decisions in the primary health care team.

This was a conclusion of a workshop held at the end of the Primary Healthcare Information Needs (PHIN) project; it also continues to describe the reality of information access in the primary care environment. An innovative project, PRISE (Primary Care Sharing the Evidence), focused further on the mechanisms and skills that enable primary health care teams to provide high-quality care based on the best available evidence.

It quickly became apparent in the course of the PRISE project that the Internet was a potentially valuable resource for primary health care teams. The provision of Internet access in the participating practices was supported by on-site training and library-based back-up for

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           5

enquiries and document supply. The PRISE project report offers helpful information for those planning the provision of information services to primary health care teams.

Explain (with specific examples using local hospitals or other health care providers) how your recommended innovation will improve the overall level of health care in your own community.

I live in a very small community in Collingdale PA with a centralized hospital. Even though the hospital is not too far to the people in the community yet internet systemhas been playing a very good role in the daily transactions between the patients and the healthcare professionals. Used in conjunction with regular office visits, the internet has the potential to offer significant advantages to both health-care professionals and patients in my community.  For example, accurate information online can help inform patients and lead to better decision-making by patients and physicians. The communication capabilities of the internet, including email and the ability to share documents easily and quickly, can help patients get answers from a doctor’s office more quickly and efficiently. There are numerous ways internet facility could improve the overall level of health care in my community among which are:

Providing Context to Online Information

Many patients go online to research symptoms and conditions before or after contacting their personal physicians. While there are a number of reputable health-related sites, there are also numerous personal blog sites, pharmaceutical distribution sites and other sites that provide information of questionable value. Health-care providers who are familiar with the internet can help their patients understand the value of various online-information sources(PubMed, 2007). For example, in my community there are numbers of information needed to know before going

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           6

for hospital’s appointment but through the aid of internet, almost all information needed can be sourced out right inside our various home. Also, an appointment can be booked from the internet without making any consultation to the hospital except when emergency arises.

Becoming More Efficient

Health-care providers who communicate with their patients through email can be more efficient in addressing a patient’s questions or concerns. Office visits are expensive and can involve a substantial waiting period. Many routine questions and concerns can be handled with email responses along with regular office visits. Health-care professionals may be able to free up time for more serious medical cases, and patients may be able to get a satisfactory answer or second opinion more quickly and easily (PubMed, 2007).

Better Access through Telemedicine

The internet also facilitates the practice of medicine over great distances or telemedicine. This is especially important for those living in remote areas or those who may be housebound. For example, if a patient in a small rural town has the symptoms of a rare medical condition, a specialist located in a large urban area could review the patient’s medical records online including X-rays, the family practitioner’s notes and test results. Telemedicine is already in practice today, providing access to higher quality medical care to people in rural locations around the world(PubMed, 2007).

 

 

 

 

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           7

Recommend actions that senior management could take in the community in which you live to push the boundaries of information technology management.

It is true that many Providers have felt the heavy impact of various government regulations and have experienced a period of decreasing margins and increasing emphasis on cost controls. It is expected that senior management should enable health care providers (from physicians to integrated delivery systems) to improve the cost effectiveness and quality of their care delivery capabilities. Senior Managers are expected to contribute to the growth and development of the hospital in my community in a variety of ways, including:

•Engagement Management:  Lead engagement planning and budgeting; mobilize and manage engagement teams; define deliverable structure and content; facilitate buy-in of proposed solutions from top management levels at the client; direct on-time, quality delivery of work products; manage engagement economics; manage engagement risk.

•Client Management:  Manage day to day interactions with executive clients and sponsors

•Business Development: Develop and maintain contact with top decision makers at key clients; organize and lead pursuit teams; participate and lead aspects of the proposal development process; contribute to the development of proposal pricing strategies

•Practice Development & Eminence:  Develop practical solutions and methodologies; develop “thought ware” and “point-of-view” documents; participate in public speaking events; get published in industry periodicals

•People Development:  Perform role of counselor and coach; provide input and guidance into the staffing process; actively participate in staff recruitment and retention activities; provide leadership and support for delivery teams and staff in local offices

Technology Assessment                                                                                                           8

References

Robin Beaumont (1999). Types of Health Information Systems (IS). Retrieved from:http://www.fhi.rcsed.ac.uk/rbeaumont/virtualclassroom/chap12/s2/systems1.htm, January 21st, 2012.

 

Stephen E Ross, Chen-Tan Lin (2002). The Practice of Informatics Review Paper: The Effects of Promoting Patient Access to Medical Records. Volume 10 Issue 2, Retrieved from: http://jamia.bmjjournals.com/content/10/2/129.abstract, January 20th, 2012.

 

PubMed (2007). Untangling the Web–the impact of Internet use on health care and the physician-patient relationship. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17920226?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum, January 20th, 2012.

 

Glandon, G.L., Smaltz, D.H. & Slovensky, D.J. (2011). Information Systems for Healthcare Management (7th ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press

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The Federal Reserve is the main Government body that influences national Fiscal Policies which, in turn, can affect the the housing market in the USA. This body is responsible for the setting the rise and fall of interest rates, it affects the amount of money people are able to borrow through mortgages. This affects the price of a home and what someone is able to sell it for. The second body the influences the national Fiscal Policies is the Department of Treasury which offers programs and financial help in the way of tax policies to homeowners and buyers.

 

 

The Federal Reserve is the main Government body that influences national Fiscal Policies which, in turn, can affect the the housing market in the USA.  This body is responsible for the setting the rise and fall ofinterest rates, it affects the amount of money people are able to borrow throughmortgages.  This affects the price of a home and what someone is able to sell it for.  The second body the influences the national Fiscal Policies is the Department of Treasury which offers programs and financial help in the way of tax policies to homeowners and buyers.

National fiscal policy refers to the way in which a government’s spending and taxation policies are able to influence the economy.  For instance the $8,000/$6,500 tax credit that recently expired, and the deductibles of mortgage interest and real estate taxes that an owner must pay every year.

There are many benefits to owning a home.  Some of these include ownership of your own land, if you pay your mortgage on time it benefits your credit and the tax deductions that you receive when you first buy and for years after.  For these reasons I would make a recommendation to buy a home.  This is not to say that there are not risk to buying a home.  For instance with the economy the being in such bad condition and many people who for years have paid there mortgage on time are now in foreclosure.  There are also risk in the condition of the house when you buy it.  There could be some additional  unforeseen expense, this could make your investment more of a cost then originally expected.  There is also the cost of maintaining the home over the years.  This means the cost of a roofing, plumbing, paint, flooring and may other expenses.  Making sure you have enough money to make this investment is important.

 

 

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Everyone can and will experience some sort of health problems. But with the way the world is today some of those health problems will be from the way we eat. One major health problem in people today would be high cholesterol. Someone could lower their cholesterol just by eating properly and healthier. Cholesterol is just one health problem related nutrition and healthy eating but there is many more like obesity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan

Shannon Colledge

University of Phoenix Axia College

 

Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan

Everyone can and will experience some sort of health problems. But with the way the world is today some of those health problems will be from the way we eat. One major health problem in people today would be high cholesterol. Someone could lower their cholesterol just by eating properly and healthier. Cholesterol is just one health problem related nutrition and healthy eating but there is many more like obesity.

A health problem that has haunted me most of my life would be obesity. This is a health problem that has taken over most of the world this day and age. I have done everything like being tested for thyroid problems when I was a child but that was never an issue. The issue was that I did not eat right. Yes when I was younger we ate meals as a family but not all of our meals where healthy. I was also raised in a house that what was on your plate that you took you must eat. The issue is that I liked food but I liked food so much that it made me unhealthy. Now, that I am older I an able to understand how healthy eating can be very vital in my life.

At the age of 31 going on 32 I decided that it was time to live a healthier life. So I started to see some doctor about how I can lose weight through surgery. I did research on ever weight loss surgery out there. After about a month of research I found a surgery that would best suit me in the long run which was the lap band. Once I picked the surgery I wanted to do I had to see a dietician as well as a psychiatrist just to go over information so I would understand that the surgery is a tool to help me but I had to work at it. The day I stated the program I weighed in at 449lbs with my weight being so high I need to lose 40lbs before surgery. This took me 3 months to lose and it took a lot of will power. The way I lost the 40lbs was by changing the way I at and what I ate. With me never being a breakfast eater I learn that this was the most important meal of the day and something I should never miss. Also I did not allow myself to snack during the day except for drinking water. I was so strict with myself I only ate 3 small meals a day and cut out all soda drinks. After being a month into the program I had not lost the weight I needed to in order to have the surgery. So I set a goal of what I had to do which included doing masters cleanse, this was something that I stuck to but found out the hard way I was not doing it correctly. The master cleanse is a drink that I would drink for two weeks to flush my system. So when I started I would do nothing but drink the master cleanse during the day and then have a salad for dinner. This worked out really good because the 2nd month before my surgery I had lost 18lbs. But, I was having major headaches so I talked it over with the doctor and come to find out I was having headaches because I was not putting any protein into my system and they told me I needed to add that to my diet. This is when I decided to do one meal supplement protein shake a day this worked out great. I was losing the weight and not feeling hungry at all. In the 3rd month I had to be on nothing but liquids leading up to the surgery so my stomach would shrink for surgery. This was the hardest thing I ever had to do but I did it. When that 3rd month was over I got on the scale to find out that I had lost 39lbs in 3 months and was ready to have the surgery. With me losing the weight it showed the doctor that I can have this surgery be successful with it. I ended up having the surgery in April and with just a little over a year I have lost a total of 143lbs by just changing my whole eating plan.

My pyramid plan told me that I am not eating the correct amount of fiber, fruits, grains, and a whole bunch of other things. The problem with that is because my band does not allow me to eat all day long so I eat what I can handle and I do not snack throughout the day. I do eat very small but healthy meals for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. I do not eat a lot of high fiber because it will fill you up but go straight through you making me hungry. I have an eating chart that I try to follow that the dietician gave me to follow and this is really what I have to stick to till I no longer need the support of the lap band. Then my goals will be to stick with the food chart I have of eating small portions, no fast food, and having a lot of vegetables/fruits. Since I have been doing this for over a year it will not be hard for me to stick with because my family is already use to the adjustment of eating right. I do not make separate meals they eat the same things I do. By doing this they can maintain a healthy diet along with me.

Along with maintain a healthy eating pattern I will stick to my goal of working out as much as I can in a week.  This is a routine I have now been doing for about 5 months and really seems to be working out well. At Curves I work out normal for the first 30 min and then the next 30 min I really speed things up. On Tuesday and Wednesdays I not only do an hour work out at Curves I now have included an additional hour of Zumba making my work out now 2 hours on those days. Living in the south suburbs of Chicago you really never know what the weather will be so joining a health club like this really allows me to do my work out no matter what the weather may be. This is something I really enjoy but with work, school, and being a single mom it really is wearing me out. This is one goal I really will stick to but I might have to cut my work out days down in the future. But for right now this is a goal I really enjoy.

The vitamin I am currently taking is Woman’s One-A-Day. I am really not a person who takes these vitamins. I have nothing against them but I feel I eat healthy enough not to. But since I have had lap band surgery the doctor recommended that I take something because with the weight loss my body goes through changes. I have very low iron so Woman’s One-A-Day has iron in them so I do not have to settle with just one pill that contains iron but it also contains a lot more such as calcium which is great for your bones. I am so use to taking the vitamin it’s kind of like brushing my teeth in the morning just something I have to do.

My nutrition and exercise plan is something I know I can stick with because I have been doing so for over a year now. I want to be able to stay healthy no only for myself but for my family as well. I really enjoy knowing that I have lowered my risk of heart disease, high cholesterol, and the chances of getting diabetes all because I chose to eat and live healthier. This will allow my son to grow up healthier as well.

If I do not follow this plan I have for a healthier life I will take a chance of gain all the weight I have worked so hard to lose. This would also put my heath at risk all over again. If I was to maintain the weight that I have lost I must think long term and take care of myself daily.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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An ethical system is defined as the main source of moral our beliefs. The seven major ethical systems are ethical formalism, utilitarianism, religion, natural law, the ethics of virtue, the ethics of care, and egoism. Ethical formalism is a deontological system it is defined as the act of judging whether an act is moral is solely based on the motive or intent of the person doing the action. Ethical formalism also deals with if someone has good intentions or motives for doing an action even if the action resulted in something bad happening, it is still considered a moral action. I will post the rest of the assignment tomorrow.

An ethical system is defined as the main source of moral our beliefs. The seven major ethical systems are ethical formalism, utilitarianism, religion, natural law, the ethics of virtue, the ethics of care, and egoism. Ethical formalism is a deontological system it is defined as the act of judging whether an act is moral is solely based on the motive or intent of the person doing the action. Ethical formalism also deals with if someone has good intentions or motives for doing an action even if the action resulted in something bad happening, it is still considered a moral action. I will post the rest of the assignment tomorrow.

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Today it seems like the entire world is interested in only buying the top rated laptops rather than the top rated desktop computers. People are often arguing that laptops are so much better than desktops. Having a laptop does have its advantages it is wireless so you can take it anywhere you go. And with today’s busy American people are always on the go and this can be a handy tool to have for business meetings and school. Much like the cassette tape is now obsolete to CD’s the desktop will give way to the lap top the only disadvantage with the lap top is most of them do not have a tremendous amount of memory and once the memory is used its done. But, with the latest technologies I am sure computer makers will build enough memory to solve this problem.

Today it seems like the entire world is interested in only buying the top rated laptops rather than the top rated desktop computers. People are often arguing that laptops are so much better than desktops. Having a laptop does have its advantages it is wireless so you can take it anywhere you go. And with today’s busy American people are always on the go and this can be a handy tool to have for business meetings and school. Much like the cassette tape is now obsolete to CD’s the desktop will give way to the lap top the only disadvantage with the lap top is most of them do not have a tremendous amount of memory and once the memory is used its done. But, with the latest technologies I am sure computer makers will build enough memory to solve this problem.

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Explain how McDonalds lost their way internationally and how they were able to reenergize their organization. Before 2003 McDonalds was driven by building the number of stores and driving sales by expanding the number of stores. On 2003 their new direction was to enhance the experience at the store level and drive sales at existing stores. They wanted to increase the number of visits to the store by the same individual. They wanted to be bigger by being better. They decide to pursue improved profitability by revitalizing the brand!

Explain how McDonalds lost their way internationally and how they were able to reenergize their organization. Before 2003 McDonalds was driven by building the number of stores and driving sales by expanding the number of stores. On 2003 their new direction was to enhance the experience at the store level and drive sales at existing stores. They wanted to increase the number of visits to the store by the same individual. They wanted to be bigger by being better. They decide to pursue improved profitability by revitalizing the brand!

 

McDonald’s sales were in decline, market share was shrinking,

franchisees were frustrated, employee morale was low, and customer

satisfaction was even lower.3 The loss column was full.

The brand had

been declining slowly, painfully, and publicly for some time. The simplest analysis of what went wrong is that McDonald’s violated the

three brand-building basics for enduring profitable growth:

• Renovation

• Innovation

• Marketing

McDonald’s failed to continuously improve its brand experience by ignoring these three criticalities: renovation, innovation, and marketing. McDonald’s focused on cost reduction instead of quality growth of the top line.

When the image of the brand was deteriorating, instead of investing in brand experience renovations and innovations, McDonald’s focused on monthly promotions rather than on brand building. Instead of brand building marketing communications, the focus was on monthly promotional tactics designed to drive short-term sales at the expense of brand equity.[5] One member of my global team called this the “fireworks” approach to marketing: big bursts of activities that dissipated quickly.

As a result, between 1997 and 2002, we witnessed the sad decline of a mismanaged and mismarketed brand. The brand misery was played out in the press.[6] One analyst saw a faltering brand that was lacking in food quality, pleasant service, and helpful employees.[7] Mark Kalinowski at Salomon Smith Barney was highly critical of the management of the McDonald’s brand, and in response to management’s briefing on revamping the exteriors of the restaurants, he said, “Having a better looking building does nothing to fix rude service, slow service, or inaccurate order fulfillment.”[8

As same-store sales declined, McDonald’s focused on building new stores as the primary growth strategy. Instead of increasing the number of customers visiting existing stores, McDonald’s focused on increasing the number of stores. The major strategic road to growth was to open new restaurants, open new countries, and generate traffic with the fireworks of monthly tactical promotions and price deals. At an analysts briefing, Michael Quinlan, then chairman and CEO, said in January 1998, “You can look for about 2,200 worldwide and maybe 350 net new restaurants in the US…” as restaurant expansion plans for 1998 are likely to replicate last year’s.[9] This projected rate of expansion is approximately equivalent to a new store opening every four hours.

There are consequences to overzealous expansion as a growth strategy. It was not possible to properly staff and train people to provide a quality McDonald’s experience at this rate of store openings. Service suffered because people had to be trained too quickly. The focus changes to efficiency at the expense of effectiveness. You lose your connection to your core promise as you race to ribbon-cuttings

Three Pillars of the Plan to Win

  • Brand direction
  • Freedom within a framework
  • Measurable milestones

 

The Plan to Win is designed to guide brand thinking, the setting of priorities, and the development of a viable and feasible action plan. It is a business concept, crossing functions and geographies and organizational boundaries. It is the most powerful tool in a manager’s toolbox. It affects every aspect of the business. The Plan to Win has four goals at its base:

  • Attract more customers.
  • Convince customers to purchase more often.
  • Increase brand loyalty.
  • Become more profitable.

In other words, more customers, more often, more brand loyalty, more profitable; these are the bottom-line goals for brand revitalization.

Four Goals of the Plan to Win

  • More customers
  • More often
  • More brand loyalty
  • More profitable

 

The Plan to Win is based on a disciplined thought process we call the Eight Ps. The Eight Ps of the Plan to Win represent eight critical areas for brand and business success: Purpose, Promise, People, Product, Place, Price, Promotion, and Performance.

Eight Ps of the Plan to Win

  • Purpose
  • Promise
  • People
  • Product
  • Place
  • Price
  • Promotion
  • Performance

 

Purpose and Promise define the brand direction. The brand purpose defines the overarching mission of the brand, and the brand promise is the contract with our customers. It is a promise that if you buy this brand, you will get this experience. A brand promise answers the question “what kind of brand experience do we wish to promise and deliver to every customer every time?”

The final P in the Plan to Win is Performance. Performance is the definition of the measurable milestones to assess our progress in brand revitalization.

The Five Action Ps

What are the actions we will take to achieve the measurable milestones? This brings us to the five action Ps: People, Product, Place, Price, and Promotion.

Delivering the brand promise is not determined by good intentions. It is accomplished by the actions we take. The five action Ps define how we plan to achieve the bottom-line goals of more customers, more often, more brand loyalty, and more profit. How we expect to deliver our promise across each of the five action Ps (people, product, place, price, and promotion) is articulated in the Plan to Win.

The details of the Plan to Win are discussed in Chapter 9, “Realizing Global Alignment: Creating a Plan to Win.” The Plan to Win is a brand action blueprint. Adhering to the Plan to Win is critical for building brand revitalization.

Rule #1: Refocus the Organization

In revitalizing the McDonald’s brand, we not only had principles, we also had rules-based practices. Underlying the rules and the rules-based practices is the Plan to Win.

Refocusing the organization around common goals is the first step in creating a Plan to Win. What are our common goals? What is our common brand purpose?

To refocus the organization means moving from a provider mindset to a customer mindset. A provider mindset states: “How do we profitably sell what we know how to provide?” But a customer mindset means focusing on, “How do we profitably provide what we know our customers will want?”

It may sound trite, but it is true: The customer is the boss, and we must figure out the best way to please the boss. It is all about how we market to the boss. Or, as Phil Kotler and Gary Armstrong define marketing, it is all about satisfying customer needs profitably.[3]

[3] Kotler, Philip, and Armstrong, Gary, Principles of Marketing, 9th edition, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2001.

Refocusing the Organization: The Practices

Refocusing the organization requires a total commitment to four actions:

  • Explain brand purpose and goals
  • Exercise financial discipline
  • Enforce operational excellence
  • Employ leadership marketing

Rule #2: Restore Brand Relevance

The second P in our Plan to Win focuses on ensuring the relevant differentiation of the brand promise. Where the first P—the brand purpose—provides an inspiring sense of corporate mission for the whole organization, the brand promise is an articulation of the relevant and differentiating experience that the brand will deliver to every customer, every time, everywhere so that we can make progress toward achieving the stated purpose.

How we define the brand promise is critical. Needs-based market segmentation is an important first step. It is also important to collect and synthesize the various opinions, views, and visions of people at all levels of the organization including the top management team.

Restoring Relevance: The Practices

Four things that must be accomplished to restore relevance:

  • Develop a thorough knowledge of the market
  • Adopt needs-based market segmentation
  • Create customer insight
  • Define the brand promise

Chapter 4, “Rule #2: Restore Brand Relevance,” also discusses the use of the brand pyramid—the Arcature approach for helping to define the brand promise.

 

Question 1 of 5 20.0 Points

Once a domestic business strategy is created, why should a business plan be created that is focused entirely on the Global Market? The student should understand the complexity of the foreign market and the huge opportunities that exist to further drive their product and brand. The international corporation must have a clear corporate objective and direction that should closely align to the corporate goals and objectives. While the execution will vary by market, the basic strategy of the firm and identity needs to be established, understood, and communicated.

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When writing a business plan, what are the potential audiences that you should address and how would you adapt your business plan to each of the audiences? Students should understand that there is the board of directors who will scrutinize the plan. The board must be able to understand the plan and that the plan has a high probability of success. Internal marketing, salesmen, operational people, etc, must all understand the program so there is a clear corporate direction that the organization is pursuing. The investment community must understand the plan and have confidence in management’s capability to execute the program. The plan should align with your customers’ needs and wants. The plan must be able to address the different countries and cultures that the firm will be competing in and must be flexible enough to address the uniqueness of the international market. Finally, the shareholders need to know you have a clear and concise business strategy that will maximize the long term success of your corporation.

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Question 3 of 5 20.0 Points

Identify the 6 Rules for Market Revitalization and how they are critical when competing in the global market. Branding is not the same as advertising. It is a promise that when you buy a product in the international market you will get and have an experience. A brand is a promise versus the actual deliverable which is a product or service. This is its international identity and its commitment to deliver on its promise. Rule 1 Refocus the organization Rule 2 Restore brand relevance Rule 3 Reinvent the brand experience Rule 4 Reinforce a results culture Rule 5 Build brand trust. Rule 6 Realize global alignments Detailing these initiatives and how they are absolutely critical in establishing a solid international plan that will be successful.

 

Why are operational processes so important when trying to execute your strategic global business plan? Once a solid plan and strategy is established it really is up to the operational and technical people to establish a plan that can allow the rest of the organization to execute on their established initiatives. The operation plan must be achievable, understood and followed. Where a country may have some barriers to entry the team must establish processes to overcome the local issues. A detailed plan that addresses issues that may occur is absolutely necessary. Part of the plan is coordinating your deliverables with your sales and marketing team in order to insure the promises to the customer from the brand are achieved.

 

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• Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

Week One Assignment

CJA/234 Version 2

1

 

 

 

  1. Individual Assignment:  Prison Comparison Contrast Paper

 

  • Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?
  • Properly cite your paper according to APA guidelines.

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

•           Properly cite your paper according to APA guidelines.

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

•           Properly cite your paper according to APA guidelines.

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

 

•           Prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. Be sure to take into account historical factors and precedence in your evaluation, and compare and contrast prison systems during WWII and after WWII. What was the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period? What has been the trend of prison labor since?

0

The purpose of the prosecutor is to represent the state or federal government in a court of law. It is the duty of the prosecutor to build and execute a case in which a law has been broken. A prosecutors discretion begins with what cases will be filed and the charges that will be filed. The prosecutor also has options as to how he will file his or her case. Cases can be presented to a grand jury’s or through documentation. This step is necessary before the trial can begin. A prosecutor may also enter into plea agreements if it is deemed appropriate. In some cases a prosecutor will also take part in bail hearing if there is reasonable suspicion that defendant is a flight risk. The final area a prosecutor has discretion is in jury selection. In choosing jurors the prosecutor is allowed a limited number of objections.

 

 

 

 

 

Court review

Raymond Wroblewski

CJA 224

December 6, 2011

John Lonbardi


Court review

The purpose of the prosecutor is to represent the state or federal government in a court of law. It is the duty of the prosecutor to build and execute a case in which a law has been broken. A prosecutors discretion begins with what cases will be filed and the charges that will be filed. The prosecutor also has options as to how he will file his or her case. Cases can be presented to a grand jury’s or through documentation. This step is necessary before the trial can begin. A prosecutor may also enter into plea agreements if it is deemed appropriate. In some cases a prosecutor will also take part in bail hearing if there is reasonable suspicion that defendant is a flight risk. The final area a prosecutor has discretion is in jury selection. In choosing jurors the prosecutor is allowed a limited number of objections. A poorly chosen jury may make it impossible to find an individual guilty even if there is strong evidence. For any of these actions to take place a prosecutor must first determine if the evidence meet the burden of reasonable doubt. In cases where this is not met a prosecutor will dismiss or seek further investigation to make his case. A prosecutor has some discretion in what court the case will be held. In this case he can choose the location and the judge who will oversee the case.

Prosecutorial discretion has a very direct flow in the court system. The effects are seen in preliminary, bond, and sentencing hearings. The level of charge also affects the court as the burden of proof required is unique to each charge. In most courts each stage of a trial is scheduled independently which means a case may stay in the court system for an extended period of time. This means the court must juggle several things at once. This can be made even harder if dealing with non-criminal cases, like traffic or civil case. In these instances the case may have to be handled in an entirely different physical location.

The only way to improve consistency would be to establish a uniform standard system. This could involve hour requirements related to law enforcement investigations. It would also be necessary to establish a minimum standard burden of evidence for each charge. Prosecutor discretion could also be reduced in how many charges could be brought in each case.