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Why would changing heart rate change cardiac output and mean arterial pressure?

BIOS140:  Week 5 iLab – CardioLab

Name:  ___Adriana Arroyo ____

NOTE:  Save document as:  Lab2_FIRSTNAME_LASTNAME.docx, using your name in the filename.   (This document is 3 pages long.)

Purpose:  The purpose of this lab is to explore how changes in blood viscosity, blood vessel radius and heart rate have on mean arterial pressure (MAP).

Results and Discussion:

Step 1:   Determine Baseline Values

Record baseline values in table below(4 pts)

 Value Measurement 80.51 Mean Arterial Pressure (mm Hg) 69.41 Heart Rate (beats/min) 78.05 Stroke Volume (ml) 1188.9 Total Peripheral Resistance (dyne-s/cm5) 6.20 Blood Volume (L)

Step 2:  Effect of Viscosity on Mean Arterial Pressure

a)     Develop a hypothesis to predict the effect of an increase in blood viscosity on mean arterial pressure. (3 pts)

An increase in blood viscosity will produce an increase on the mean arterial pressure because it will raise the total peripheral resistance.

b)    Record data (5 pts)

 Measurement “Lowest” Setting: Viscosity “Highest: Setting: Viscosity Mean Arterial Pressure (mm Hg) 71.88 78.32 Heart Rate (beats/min) 107.96 62.28 Stroke Volume (ml) 98.82 71.86 Total Peripheral Resistance (dyne-s/cm5) 538.56 1403.73 Blood Volume (L) 6.20 6.20

c)     Describe your results.  What was the impact of lowering blood viscosity?  What was the impact of increasing blood viscosity? (2 pts)

Mean arterial pressure increased from 71.88 to 78.32 mm Hg.  The mean arterial pressure rose because of the increase in the blood viscosity which will cause an increase in total peripheral resistance.

d)    Why would changing blood viscosity change mean arterial pressure? (2 pts)

Changing the blood viscosity would change mean arterial pressure because of the increase in blood flow.

Step 3: Effect of Vessel Radius on Mean Arterial Pressure

a)     Develop a hypothesis to predict the effect of an increase in vessel radius on mean arterial pressure. (3 pts)

An increase in the vessel radius will lower mean arterial pressure by decreasing total peripheral resistance.  However, a decrease in the vessel radius will increase mean arterial pressure by increasing total peripheral resistance.

b)    Record data (5 pts)

 Measurement “Lowest” Setting:    Vessel Radius “Highest” Setting:   Vessel Radius Mean Arterial Pressure (mm Hg) 61.53 71.95 Heart Rate (beats/min) 52.07 109.22 Stroke Volume (ml) 56.95 97.35 Total Peripheral Resistance (dyne-s/cm5) 1674.21 541.4 Blood Volume (L) 6.20 6.20

c)     Describe your results.  What was the impact of lowering vessel radius?  What was the impact of increasing vessel radius? (2 pts)

Total peripheral resistance changed from 1674.21 to 541.3.  By having the highest setting for vessel radius reduces total peripheral resistance which increases mean arterial pressure.  On the other hand using the lowest setting vessel radius, it increases total peripheral resistance which also decreases mean arterial pressure.

d)    Why would changing vessel radius change mean arterial pressure? (2 pts)

Changing the vessel radius would change mean arterial pressure because of the increase in blood flow being produced.

Step 4: Effect of Heart Rate on Mean Arterial Pressure

a)     Develop a hypothesis to predict the effect of an increase in heart rate on cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. (3 pts)

An increase in heart rate will produce an increase for cardiac output and mean arterial pressure.  A decrease in heart rate will produce a decrease for cardiac output and mean arterial pressure.

b)    Record data (5 pts)

 Measurement “Lowest” Setting: Heart Rate “Highest” Setting: Heart Rate Mean Arterial Pressure (mm Hg) 78.1 90.55 Heart Rate (beats/min) 50.00 200.00 Stroke Volume (ml) 103.48 56.95 Total Peripheral Resistance (dyne-s/cm5) 1207.47 635.93 Blood Volume (L) 6.20 6.20

c)     Describe your results.  What was the impact of lowering heart rate?  What was the impact of increasing heart rate? (2 pts)

The heart rate went from 50.00 to 200.00 beats per minute and mean arterial pressure changed from 78.1 to 90.55.  Cardiac output and mean arterial pressure will increase if the heart rate is increased.  Decreasing the heart rate, the cardiac output and mean arterial pressure will decrease as well.

d)    Why would changing heart rate change cardiac output and mean arterial pressure? (2 pts)

Changing the heart rate would change cardiac output and mean arterial pressure because of the increase in blood flow being produced by the increase in cardiac output.

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Trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, and monochloropentafluoroethane are refrigerants restricted by the Montreal Protocol. Restrictions on their use have led to their replacement in many consumer and industrial products, including refrigerators and air conditioners.

Trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, and monochloropentafluoroethane are refrigerants restricted by the Montreal Protocol. Restrictions on their use have led to their replacement in many consumer and industrial products, including refrigerators and air conditioners.
Dichlorodifluoromethane is a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant restricted by the Montreal Protocol. Manufacturers have had to shift to using arguably more dangerous chemicals because of the ban, namely the flammable propane, n-butane, and isobutane. Some products like whipped cream or cooking spray used compressed nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide.

Bromochlorodifluoromethane and bromotrifluoromethane are both Halons used in fire suppression, restricted by the Montreal Protocol. They have the advantage of not reacting to electrical equipment, so they can be used in areas with computers or other equipment without fear of damage. In many cases, they are being replaced by sprinklers, leading to potential damage to equipment. In some cases, alternative chemicals are being used, some of which have global warming or other side effects.

2(a). Ozone concentrations are at their highest in July. At that point, polar vortex winds have isolated chlorine and bromine into polar stratospheric clouds, where they are converted into less-stable forms. When polar sunlight returns in August, these less-stable forms are converted into free radicals which destroy ozone. This destruction continues until October, when the polar winds die down and the chemicals can disperse. Ozone rebuilding then begins until the next polar spring.

2(b). Over the past 30 years, ozone concentrations have dropped and the ozone hole has grown. Since the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, these have leveled off. It is now expected that the residual chemicals in the atmosphere have been largely “worked out” and that permanent ozone rebuilding can begin.

3. Elimination of carbon dioxide would lead to the death of all animal life on Earth, including humans, as our respiration process involves the inhalation of oxygen and the expiration of carbon dioxide.
Elimination of methane would lead to the elimination of much animal life, since it is frequently a product of digestion. At the very least, the beef industry would have to go, as would milk and cheese from cows, since they are a major producer of methane.
Elimination of HFCs would seriously impact the refrigeration and fire suppression fields, as these fields have already been hit by the Montreal Protocol and HFCs are an alternative to developing expensive and potentially less effective new compounds.

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For children, physical activity and movement enhances fitness, fosters growth and development, and helps teach them about their world. As teachers of young children, we know that most children are innately physically active. They learn as they move throughout their environment. In observing a group of young children at recess, we will most likely see them running, jumping, throwing, and kicking in this unstructured environment. It is what they do naturally…they enjoy active play! So why should we be concerned with “promoting” physical activity in children? Here’s why.

For children, physical activity and movement enhances fitness, fosters growth and development, and helps teach them about their world. As teachers of young children, we know that most children are innately physically active. They learn as they move throughout their environment. In observing a group of young children at recess, we will most likely see them running, jumping, throwing, and kicking in this unstructured environment. It is what they do naturally…they enjoy active play! So why should we be concerned with “promoting” physical activity in children? Here’s why.

Children today find themselves more often in “sedentary alternatives” (Epstein, et al, 1995). For example, children ride in a car or bus to school, have less physical education, watch more television, play more sedentary games such as computer games, and do not have as much freedom to play outside on their own. Consequently, there is mounting evidence that even our young children are becoming less physically active and more overweight and obese. Physical inactivity has contributed to the 100% increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States since 1980 (CDC, 2000). Childhood obesity should be of major concern for a number of reasons.

• Obesity in children is a major risk factor for a number of diseases (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, elevated blood cholesterol).
• Childhood obesity tends to lead to adult obesity.
• Adults who were obese as children have increased morbidity and mortality irrespective of adult weight.
• Overweight adolescents may suffer long-term social and economic discrimination Besides reducing the risks associated with childhood obesity, physical activity is important for other reasons. Regular physical activity helps children build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints; builds lean muscle and reduce fat; prevents or delays the development of high blood pressure; reduces feelings of depression and anxiety; and may, through its effect on mental health, increase students’ capacity for learning. With these facts in mind, it is imperative that we, as teachers, help reduce the amount of physical inactivity, by increasing the amount of physical activity opportunities that children have during the school day. Being physically active not only provides important health benefits, but also provides children opportunities to learn through movement.

Integrating Physical Activity Throughout the Curriculum

It has often been said, “children learn through movement.” In addition to the health benefits of physical activity, movement is an integral part of the young child’s life and education, for it is through movement that children develop social, emotional, and cognitive skills. For young children, movement is a critical means of communication, expression, and learning. It is imperative that classroom teachers give children as many opportunities as possible to be physically active and to learn through movement.

A major thrust in curriculum development in schools today is the integration of subject content across the curriculum. Integration refers to the mutual relationship between subject matter. This suggests the building of relationships between all areas of study that make up the school curriculum. Integration of curriculum enhances learning by

• promoting understanding and reinforcing curriculum content in a variety of educational settings,
• encouraging students to transfer what is learned in one setting to new settings,
• increasing meaning of what has been learned by giving students the opportunity to see information in new relationships and to apply it in new situations, and, by
• reinforcing curriculum content by more in-depth exposure to the material.

Teachers have many opportunities to use movement and physical activity within the regular classroom curriculum. Since children are interested in movement, these relationships may spark their interest as they work in math, language arts, science, social studies, health, and other subjects.

Classroom Integrated Lesson Ideas

One popular technique used to integrate subject areas and include physical activity is the Thematic Approach. In this approach, teachers overlap the content across the curriculum over a set period of time, while focusing on one theme such as the Winter Games. For example, students in Grade 1 might participate in the following integrated activities with a 2002 Winter Games theme:

Social Studies: Show children a map of the United States. Compare the geographical area, in which they live, to Salt Lake City, Utah, where the Winter Games are being held (distance from one another, size, weather, etc). Each day add a new fact about Utah, and a new fact about the Winter Games (e.g., how athletes get to the Winter Games, Winter Games events, medals, etc.) to the semantic map constructed on the first day.

Language Arts: Read the book “The Little Engine That Could ” to the class. Compare the “little engine” with a Winter Games athlete. Discuss with the children how the Winter Games athletes have a dream, and how it takes hard work and determination to achieve a dream. Encourage the children to draw and then verbalize and act out their dreams, and what they might do to follow their dreams.

Physical Education: Children practice skills and concepts of pathways, space awareness, cardiovascular endurance – fitness, and striking with an implement . They will explore the relationship of these skills to the Winter Games events of skiing, skating, and hockey.

PE Central Activities:

Math: Children are fascinated with the concept of time. To reinforce number identification, introduce children to the use of stopwatches and have them time each other in a few physical skills.

Art: Introduce children to the idea that a flag represents each country participating in the Winter Games. Show children flags from a number of countries. Ask children to design and draw their own flags on squares of white cloth. Attach to a Â¼ inch diameter-18 inch long dowel sticks and use the flags like ribbon sticks to design and create dances.

Another common practice in promoting physical activity through curriculum integration is the Shared Integration Model. In this approach, a lesson would include two distinct disciplines working together with a focus on the shared concepts. A lesson integrating physical activity with language would include practicing a skill taught in the language arts curriculum while also practicing movement skills previously learned in physical education class. An example of this approach is the Bounce to Spell  activity that focuses on practicing spelling as well as manipulative skills. In this activity children practice weekly spelling words while also practicing dribbling, passing, and catching a ball.

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The asteroid, more commonly known as the starfish, or sea star, is an invertebrate that lives mainly in an ocianic environment. These unique and unusual creatures have a number of arms that protrude away from their spiny skinned bodies. The exact number of arms depends on the species; some have only three, and the most is 42. Most people commonly associate the starfish with haveing five arems. However, there are many species of starfish that have 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 arms.

The asteroid, more commonly known as the starfish, or sea star, is an invertebrate that lives mainly in an ocianic environment. These unique and unusual creatures have a number of arms that protrude away from their spiny skinned bodies. The exact number of arms depends on the species; some have only three, and the most is 42. Most people commonly associate the starfish with haveing five arems. However, there are many species of starfish that have 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 arms.

Each arm that extends out of the “body” is covered on the bottom by many tube-like feet. These feet help convey teh starfish but taking water in and the pumping it out, therefore enabling it to move. When the water is pumped, the feet extend and contract. The pumping of the water is implemented by a complex structure of internal valves that usse hydraulic pressure. THe tube feet help the starfish in feeding, as well as locomotion.

Most species of starfish eat a variety of foods, some being meat, and others plants, therefore making it an omnivore. IOts diet includes plankton, coral, and oysters. The largher specied tend to eat birds, predominantly the sea gull. The starfish will catch the bird whil it is searchig for fish to feed on and then proceed to drown it. It then eats and digests its prey. These large starfish also tend to feed on sea urchins, fish, and crabs. This makes the larger species carnivores, as opposed to omniveors.

Even though the starfish has the ability to regenerate body limbs that have been torn away from their body, if any internal tissure is even slightly damage, the creature will most likely die. Other than this limitation, the starfish is subject to immortality.

The starfish can vary in color, from the bright and vivd designs of the tropical species, to the dull oranges and yellows of the deep-ocean dwellers. Blue, red, and green are very common colors that appear on the star.

The sea star has to practices of reproduction. First, the opposite sexes can mate by spawning the sperma nd the eggs into the water. After this, the feemale usually protects the eggs. When the eggs hatch, however, the larvae are on their own. THe second way that the starfish uses to reproduce ties in with their ablilty to regenerate limbs. The sea star will move the two halves of their body by crowling is separae directions. The body will split apart, and each half will become a new body.

This cold-blooded creature can weigh as little as 5 ounces, of as much as 5 1/2 pounds. The can measure as little as 1-2 cm, and can reach sizs as large as 3 feet. EAch of these starfish lives somewhere in the wide expanse of oceans, but only in the warmer areas. Some live very near the ocean’s bottom, while otheres live very close to the shore.

Starfish are members of the phylum echinoderma, and they belong to the class of asteroidea. Som stars are know as linkia multiflore, linkia laevigata, oreaster reticulatu, and acnthaster planci. Some belong to the genus linka, and others to oreaster, culcita, choriaster, acanthaster, and pycnopodia.

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HOW AN ORGANISM EVOLVED TO ITS ENVIRONMENT

Running head:  HOW AN ORGANISM EVOLVED TO ITS ENVIRONMENT

How a Bat Evolved Physiologically to its Environment

Albert DeSena
University of Phoenix

Lindsey DeLuca

How a Bat Physiologically Evolved to its Environment

Bats are mammals that are covered in fur, give live births, and nurse their pups.  They are perfectly designed to hang upside down like the sloth, but the uniqueness about them is that they can also fly.  They are in the Chiropteran Order meaning “hand wing”.  Their wings consist of an arm, a wrist, thumb and four fingers that are webbed with skin that form the wings.  Unlike their other flying beings the bird that have a smaller number of finger bones, the bat has the same number of hand bones as humans.  The insect eating bats have smaller thumbs and weaker hands whereas the fruit eating “flying foxes” known for their resemblance to a fox or dog have very long, strong thumbs with curved nails like claws.

Since most bats eat insects, evolutionists have traditionally taught that bats evolved from primitive insectivores, as did shrews, moles, etc.  Fruit-eaters merely modified their diet due to ecological pressures. Then in the early ’80s J. D. Smith (Smith pp. 347-365) suggested that mega bats and micro bats evolved separately, because there are many physiological differences between the two other than just size.  Micro bats have a complicated shoulder joint and a claw only on the thumb, for example, while mega bats have a simple shoulder joint but a claw on both the thumb and first finger.  Micros use echo-location, while macros mainly rely on their keen eyesight.  Micro teeth are designed for prey, while mega teeth grind plant parts.  Mega bats can live only in the tropics, needing a year-round food supply; many micro bats have the ability to hibernate through cold winters.

In 1986 Dr. John Pettigrew further proposed that flying foxes most closely resemble primates (Pettigrew p. 1), and that along with flying lemurs who also have their own order but don’t actually fly, they share a common ancestor with the primates.

In trying to understand the origins of bats, researchers can study living animals, but nobody was around millions of years ago to observe the formation of bats, so they have to rely on fossils to supply the evidence of what they propose.  What, then, is the evidence?  What do the fossils say?  In Bioscience, May 1992, we find this quote:
“Unfortunately, the fossils available only complicate matters.  They do not represent transitional morphology between quadrupedal (four-footed) animals and flying bats, and they represent animals nearly as specialized as their modern relatives”  (Thewessin p. 340).

And in Bats:  A Natural History, John Hill says almost the same thing:
“…all fossil bats, even the oldest, are clearly fully-developed bats and so they shed little light on the transition from their terrestrial ancestor” (Hill p. 33).

The oldest known skeleton, supposedly 60 million years old (Wilson p. 79), is a fully-formed bat which apparently could echo-locate (UCMP Berkeley).

“Survival of the fittest” is half of the standard answer when evolutionists are asked about the mechanisms of evolution.  They will point to examples like Darwin’s famous finches, or bacteria that become immune to antibiotics used against them.  But are these examples of evolution, or of selective breeding?  Is there any new information present?  Mutation” is the other half of the standard explanation for evolution.  It is assumed that over countless generations, mistakes occur in the genetic code, producing new characteristics, and that, given enough time and mistakes, a new species results.  But is this good science, or wishful thinking?

A far simpler explanation is that bats, like cars and planes, is the product of very careful, intelligent design;  all the varied shapes and features equip different bats to function in different ecological niches.  All the anatomical details necessary to fly and to hang upside down have been thought of and “programmed” into the genetic code.  Bat feet are totally relaxed when they are hanging (Dr. Blair Csuti, personal communication, October 17,1998), requiring effort to let go; how did that “evolve”?  Bracken Cave, in south-central Texas, is home to some 20 million Mexican free-tail bats (McCracken pp 67-68).  Each bat has to recognize the echo of its own call in the middle of millions of other echoes to avoid collisions and find its way.

References

Hill, John E., and James D. Smith (1984).  Bats:  A Natural History, University of Texas Press, Austin.

Pettigrew, Dr. John D. (1986).  Are Flying Foxes Really Primates?  Bats, Jun. v. 3 n. 2, pp. 1-2.

Thewissen, J. G. M., and S. K. Babcock (1992).  The Origin of Flight in Bats, BioScience, May, v. 42 n. 5, pp. 340-345.

Wilson, Don E. (1997).  Bats in Question, Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington D. C.

McCracken, Gary F., and Mary K. Gustin (1987).  Batmom’s Daily Nightmare, Natural History, Oct., v. 96  n. 10, pp. 66-73

http://www.creationism.org/batman/bats.htm

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I chose to look up a diagram on a sea dwelling organism known as a Jellyfish. Jellyfish have many different forms and are often characterized in different groups. One jellyfish that stood out to me was the Aurelia or also known as the Moon Jellyfish, which is like the basic jellyfish that I’ve always seen in pictures and books growing up. Jellyfish are said to be very effective predators, as one point in the time they were considered to be at the top of food chain. Being effective predators makes them physically fit to be in any environment that they travel to. Even though most would say that jellyfish are horrible swimmers, they are actually in fact many are very strong precise swimmers. Jellyfish can swim horizontally and vertically by using contraction against their bell to expel jets of water to propel them. One drawback of them not being stronger swimmers like larger fish is that they often get caught in sea currents and get stuck in them as they go pass.

I chose to look up a diagram on a sea dwelling organism known as a Jellyfish. Jellyfish have many different forms and are often characterized in different groups. One jellyfish that stood out to me was the Aurelia or also known as the Moon Jellyfish, which is like the basic jellyfish that I’ve always seen in pictures and books growing up. Jellyfish are said to be very effective predators, as one point in the time they were considered to be at the top of food chain. Being effective predators makes them physically fit to be in any environment that they travel to. Even though most would say that jellyfish are horrible swimmers, they are actually in fact many are very strong precise swimmers. Jellyfish can swim horizontally and vertically by using contraction against their bell to expel jets of water to propel them.  One drawback of them not being stronger swimmers like larger fish is that they often get caught in sea currents and get stuck in them as they go pass. The bell that propels them has a thick ring of strong muscle, called the coronal muscle. That muscle generates most of the power and energy used by a jellyfish. Now hanging from their subumbrellar is a projection called the manubrim which has the mouth its terminus. The mouth is often surrounded by oral arms normally just for but can sometimes be a multiple of four such as eight, depending on the type of species. Jellyfish don’t have a brain but they do bear a sophisticated computer which tends to all its needs and functions throughout the jellyfish’s body. Though not as complex as a normal brain, it does suit the jellyfish well. Now on the edge of the underside of the jellyfish’s bell are its tentacles. The tentacles too can range in different numbers and sometimes some have thousands. These tentacles can be used to feed it, but also are use as itself defense mechanism to protect and also to hunt. The body and tentacles of a jellyfish can discharge stinging cells called nematocysts. These stingers are grouped into stinging batteries. Their triggered by the touch of a potential prey or that of a predator looking to attack it. When attacking a prey they discharge dozen of harpoons into the victim thus, injecting venom to kill them. Other time it can discharge stick threads that can trap prey. There are many different type of nematocyst that can be found within the coelenterates, it all depends on the species. Having defenses like are good in the different types of way the jellyfish hunts and protects itself. Other jellyfish like the Lions Mane have vast tangle of tentacles that can sweep ocean floors like fishing nets. Their tentacle span is that of tennis court making it a very vicious hunter that can kill and capture dozens of prey. Needless to say jellyfish are often underestimated, but they pretty much can adapt to various conditions based off of their body’s structure. I wouldn’t want to be a fish being around a jellyfish that’s for sure.

Reference:

http://cronodon.com/BioTech/Jellyfish.html

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What types of volcanic features are discussed? What caused these volcanic features? What do you think the future of the Hawaiian Islands is from the geologic point of view?

Discussion Question 2:

• Post your description and responses in the main forum under the DQ 2 thread.
• Due day 4.

Review the Volcanoes video at http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/murck/0471747270/geodiscoveries/ch06/Volcanoes.htm. Post your response to the following: What types of volcanic features are discussed? What caused these volcanic features? What do you think the future of the Hawaiian Islands is from the geologic point of view?

The two volcanoes discussed are the shield volcano and stratovolcano. The shield volcanoes are broad and flat with low viscosity lava. The stratovolcanoes are typically high with steep sides and curved upward. The stratovolcanoes are often created by both the volcanian and plinian eruptions.

Shield volcanoes are comprised of basalt. This is the reasoning behind the sides resembling a soldier’s shield rather than steep sides. These volcanoes become explosive when water makes it into the vent. The volcanoes are considered low-explosive and consist primarily of lava not pyroclastic material like the stratovolacanoes. Shield volcanoes are usually created by hotspots but can occur in other places.

Stratovolcanoes typically erupt with cool higher viscosity lavas due to high levels of pressurized gases and pyroclastic materials. Some of these lavas are andesite and dacite. Think of shaking up a wine bottle then pulling the plug. Stratovolcanoes usually form in subduction zones.

The Pacific Plate is moving over a fixed hot spot that bring molten material from the mantle up through the crust. As the Pacific Plate moves over these spot, volcanoes are formed, which are what formed the Hawaiian Islands. The oldest islands that do not currently have volcanic activity will continue to erode and will actually get smaller in area. The islands that have volcanic activity will continue to grow in area as new material is added to their mass. The plate will continue to move and new islands will be added to the island chain as long as molten material moves up from the mantle.

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Discuss the role of fossils in helping scientists develop accurate records of the geologic history of the Earth based on what you know of fossils from your textbook and other sources. In your discussion address important discoveries such as the 3.3-million-year-old fossilized remains of a child in the Dikika region of Ethiopia

Discussion Question 2:

• Post your description and responses in the main forum under the DQ 2 thread.
• Due day 4.

Scientists debate about the use of fossils as a tool to determine records of various events, such as the vanishing of the dinosaurs or the origin of our ancestors.

Discuss the role of fossils in helping scientists develop accurate records of the geologic history of the Earth based on what you know of fossils from your textbook and other sources. In your discussion address important discoveries such as the 3.3-million-year-old fossilized remains of a child in the Dikika region of Ethiopia

There are basic rules in geology that help scientists develop an accurate record of the geologic history of the earth. One of those rules is the Law of Fossil Succession. This tells scientists that the kinds of fossils that are found change through time. When the same types of fossils are found in different parts of the world, scientists can assume that the rocks in which the fossils are found are of the same age. This has allowed scientists to make correlations in different places all over the earth (Edwards and Pojeta, 1997). In the region where the Dikika baby was found, scientists also found a lot of other fossils. When these fossils were correlated with other fossils, then the age of the rocks and those fossils in the region the Dikika baby were found could be figured out. By finding the hominid fossil in the same strata or rocks as the fossils of a known age, the scientists could more accurately describe where hominids lived and at what stage of development they were in. Scientists were able to determine the pattern of brain and vocal cord development for the hominid approximately 3.3 million years ago (Sloan, 2006).

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• Describe your assigned method and how it is used to evaluate geologic time. • Review another student’s method different from yours. • Reply to another student who describes a different method than yours and comment on which method you think is more reliable or accurate

Discussion Question 1:

• Post your description and responses in the main forum under the DQ 1 thread.
• Due day 2.

I will assign you one of the following methods of evaluating geological time: Absolute Dating and Numerical Age or Relative Dating

• Describe your assigned method and how it is used to evaluate geologic time.
• Review another student’s method different from yours.
•       Reply to another student who describes a different method than yours and comment on which method you think is more reliable or accurate

Relative dating is an old concept unlike absolute dating which is a newer concept. Archaeologists and geologists before the 20th century were largely limited to the use of the relative dating techniques. Relative dating helps an geologist to estimate the order of prehistoric and geological events determined by using simple rules called stratigraphic rules, by observing where fossil organisms lay in the geological record(which layer), often in horizontal, stratified bands of rocks present throughout the world. To site an example a fossil found in a lower layer is older than a fossil present in an upper layer because as time progresses layers of rock are formed.

This technique was discovered around 1800 by a British canal surveyor named William Smith.

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In this class I have been studying how I eat and how to maintain my diet and exercising habits. Also, I have been analyzing my USDA Food Pyramid Guide and exercise recommendations. I have looked at my resources that I have learned in Nutrition Science for the past nine weeks to have a Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan.

Final Project: Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan

SCI/241

April 24, 2011

By: Michelle Lynn

In this class I have been studying how I eat and how to maintain my diet and exercising habits. Also, I have been analyzing my USDA Food Pyramid Guide and exercise recommendations. I have looked at my resources that I have learned in Nutrition Science for the past nine weeks to have a Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan.

Well, I am twenty-nine years old, a female, and weigh two hundred pounds. In my family a current health problem we have is high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. In my current lifestyle I have started eating fairly healthy and exercise two to three times a week but I need to push myself to the limit and how I eat right so I will not have health problems when I get older. I do not eat a lot of meats and that is a challenge that I am achieving. I do not pursue in drinking water or milk the way I should because in milk I need my calcium for strong bones and Vitamin D but some people do not feel that Vitamin D may do that much for them. Where I live at down here it is fair with cloudy and sunny skies. I do most of my work indoors so I am not really and outdoor person to get sun to maintain a level of vitamin D in my body. In my diet I try to keep fish, vegetables, fruits, and grains. I like to eat green vegetables and try different types of fruit also.

On my job I do not get to exercise so I work out at the gym like get on the treadmill for thirty minutes sometimes an hour and lift weights like the shake weight. I like to do these exercises to increase my heart rate to help with my cardiovascular. I have learned that these exercises will not build bone strength so it has no high impact. I really need to make sure that I include more exercises to do to increase my heart rate and my bone density. For example: jogging, impact exercises, taebo, and high speed bicycling. All of these exercises should help me with my exercise plan.

I have learned that my nutritional goals shouldn’t be hard to meet if I stay motivated. I really need to add more fruits and vegetables in my diet as well as whole grains. But with my red meats I really should consider replacing them with more nuts or fish. Where I live fresh salmon and tuna are very plentiful and affordable. Also, we also have enough walnuts and hazelnuts trees where I stay so that should also help with my diet plan.

My next nutritional goal I have is to start eating a healthy breakfast everyday and try eating smaller portions throughout the day instead of me eating two to three large meals a day. I feel that if I maintain eating smaller portions this can help increase my energy to help me get through my day, and give me strength to do my exercises. Another thing is to stop eating out all the time because my family and I eat out at least three to four times a week. Sometimes I will eat if I am depressed and this can cause me to sometimes overeat so this makes my exercise goals more harder for me to maintain than my nutritional goals.

My first exercise goal is for me to go and get on the treadmill at least five times a week. My second exercise goal is to at least jog at least five times a week. I am going to have to take it real slow to start with but hopefully as I progress I will be able to jog at least three miles, and increase my speed and distance whenever I am able to. I have a aunt who participates in marathons like the relay for life and she encourages me to come out and join her, and that does encourage me.

Third my goal is to take zumba classes with my friends. They have told me that the workout is fun and challenging but it requires total engagement especially if you are new to Latin dancing. So I have heard great things about zumba with my friends and family encouraging me I think that is a definite goal for me to try out.

My fourth goal would be to start swimming more . When I was younger I have always loved to swim but I haven’t did it in awhile but I use my children as an excuse. I stay ten minutes away from a community pool and I know my mother would love to watch my kids while I go swimming, so there will be no more excuses for me. I have learned that swimming is a terrific low paced exercise and I feel it is a activity that I will enjoy especially in the summertime.

First in order for me to maintain these goals I will have to schedule my activities on a monthly calendar. I will have to follow through with my scheduled items and use a planner also to maintain my time. All of these activities that I have named are changes to help in my lifestyle. A lot of these activities my family and I can enjoy like spending family time together. Where I stay we do have a lot of fair days so it shouldn’t be an excuse for me and my family to do outdoor activities.  Also, that goes for the cold weather because we can dress warm enough to jog, bike, and swim.

My dietary goals have already been made. I will start off by making my meal plan on Sundays. I will make sure to include healthy meals with baked food instead of fried, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. I have started bringing home fresh fish to eat more often and storing it in the freezer so I can let it sit out and defrost to prepare healthy meals for me and my family.

I am doing good at keeping track of my daily meals on the USDA Pyramid Tracker, that I have been able to maintain and stay motivated with this program. I really like to try different variety of foods that helps me to stop avoiding eating out and being lazy. I have learned if I do eat out order salads or eat small portions of the foods there. Also, I love candy and I have learned to avoid snack foods like: chips, candy bars, cookies, and cake. Instead I should eat fruits like: bananas, apples, oranges, and grapes.

I can already see the change in my nutrition plan by going through and examining my daily food intake on the pyramid tracker website. I really enjoy this tool because it’s an excellent resource to help with the right diet to go by. This tool also helps with exercise plans and food intake. By using the pyramid tracker I can look at my daily recommended intake that I need for different foods and nutrients and adjust it in my diet to help me meet those recommendations with this plan to maintain the needs for the nutritional and physical fitness. I use this site daily to maintain my diet and my nutritional goals and has helped keep track on my exercise and my calories I have burned.

I can keep track on my success with this exercise plan in a few ways. For one I can make sure that I can fit into a pair of jeans that I wore last summer. Another way I can measure and keep track of my weight. When I am on the treadmill I can keep a track at how fast I am going and the miles and I am thinking about using the same measure for bicycling.

I feel that this plan can be maintained for my age when I get older. I think that I will have to make a few changes at the way I eat. For starters, I will have to start by changing from the treadmill for bicycling. If I maintain myself at staying active I will have a good life when I get older. I want my cardiovascular and bone density to be in perfect shape before I get older, rather than have poor health when I get old. If I don’t change my eating and drinking habits now I could get osteoporosis, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, arthritis, and the list goes on. I have found out that when people be very active in exercising and eating healthy when they are young they will do the same when they get older. That’s how I want to be and learn from the one’s that do this.

I would like to pass the plan on to my sister and my kids because children learn from examples and if my kids see me and their father eating a healthy meal and exercising they will do the same. This is probably the most important thing to me. I would love for my sister to maintain a healthy lifestyle just like we would love to past on our wealth and property so we would want I children to inherit our good habits. That is the reason I do not smoke and drink because I want my children to learn by example.

In closing, I have learned that physics states that an object rests but an object in motion does takes a force to stop. I feel the law will work the same for people. This is why I intend on staying in motion.

References:

USDA My Pyramid Tracker. Retrieved 4-24-11 from http:// www.mypyramidtracker.gov/