what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

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Toddlers

Toddlers - Age 1 to 3 years

§ Rapid growth rate of infancy begins to slow

§ Gain 5.5 to 7.5 inches and 9 to 11 pounds

§ High energy requirement due to increased activity level

Macronutrients

§ 30–40% of total kcal from fat

§ 1.10 g of protein per kg body weight

§ 130 g carbohydrates per day

§ 14 g fiber per 1,000 kcal of energy consumed

Micronutrients

§ Ensure adequate intake of the micronutrients obtained from fruits and vegetables, including

§ Vitamins A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc

§ Iron-deficient anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in young children

Fluid needs- 1.3 liters/day

Supplements

§ Toddlers may need supplements due to their erratic eating habits, especially for fluoride

§ Supplements should not exceed 100% RDA for any nutrient

Nutritious food choices

§ Toddlers have an innate ability to match their intake with their needs

§ Keeping a nutritious variety of foods available encourages a healthful diet

§ Food should not be forced on a child

§ Do not use bribery to encourage children to eat

§ Foods prepared should be fun

Allergies – Continue to watch for food allergies

§ Introduce one new food at a time

Vegetarian families – A diet including eggs and dairy can be a healthful diet

§ A vegan diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals

 

 

 

 

 

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This week I have

My Nuclear Opinions

This week I have learned a lot about nuclear power plants. Along with these discoveries I’ve gathered some chilling factors about nuclear power as well.  There are many risks and some very productive gains involved with nuclear power opposed to other types of power production such as: fossil, hydroelectric or solar. In this writing today I plan on covering all these facts along with what needs to be addressed when building a power plant of this type and locations that are suitable for these sites. When you get done reading I want you to be informed on as much knowledge about nuclear power and I would like to explain how my family and I feel about a nuclear power plant being about 5 miles away from my back door. So, please allow me to share with you my nuclear opinions starting off with the pro versus the cons.

 

The benefits of nuclear power

Whenever I see the words nuclear and power put together I get nervous. I’ve seen what nuclear power plants have done to the people in Japan who were exposed to very small amounts of radiation had been pre-filtered (Brook,2011). Though no one has died I suspect that there will be some health defects in the near future just wait and see. Nuclear power plants produce millions of jobs to the nation. In fact, I have listed a couple of numbers that will probably blow your mind. According to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) pre-constructing a power plant involves over 14,000-15,000 jobs. Construction of nuclear power plants  yield 20,000 direct construction jobs and operations after 2016 will produce 700 actual jobs multiplied by 16 (NEI,2011) .  Uranium is the material that powers these power plants at the moment and we have about 500 years worth of uranium in supply (School of Physics, 2011).  Next I will explain the bad things that I’ve learned about nuclear energy and its wastes.

 

The Not so good things about Nuclear Power

The not so good things about nuclear power were alarming and I had to tell you about it.  The by-product of nuclear power is plutonium; this product can be used to refuel plants or to cause destruction to others in the form of weaponry (Lai and Morrison, 1998-2011). To me this alone is a very disturbing fact to know about this subject. There is always room for error when dealing with any type of power plant and its reproduction. One of the biggest fears I have is that while all this money is being made we will miss out on important control measures and that someday we will all have to pay for this. History proves that time after time we find out that inspectors were paid off not to inspect important things to cut the costs of repairs. This to me should not be allowed to happen with nuclear power, people’s lives are at danger here. Nuclear power plants pose as targets for terrorist and they are ideal if someone wanted to send a message of fear and destruction. Next I will give some guidelines of where nuclear power plants should be placed and what factors should be considered before building one of these plants.

 

Where power plants should be placed?

I think that the single most important factor to be considered would be the people. If the people don’t want anything to do with a nuclear power plant then don’t build one. Extensive research and casting of votes from every citizen in the community that the plant will built in is a must.  I live next to the  San Onofre nuclear power plant and it is located on the coast, so I’m going to take a wild guess  and say that Nuclear plants must have access to water at all times. I remember reading about the nuclear meltdown in Japan and they needed a lot of water to cool those reactors off when they were overheating (Greenemeier, 2011).   I’ve also noticed that the power plant that I live by is in a remote area (about 3-5 miles from any residential area), so I’m going to also assume that a good location for a plant will be away from residential areas and in a place where if something happened the local eco-system will not be harmed.  The water also provides power for the turbines to spin at high velocity (Macintosh, A. 2007) as I read further I realized that there are zones for nuclear plants to have in order to protect the local community and they are:  Zone 1 has to be approximately 1 kilometer away from the original facility. Zone 2 is to be five kilometers away from the plant, this is also known as the protective zone (Macintosh, A. 2007).  There is an emergency planning zone (Zone 3) and this zone is about 20 kilometers away from the plant (Macintosh, A. 2007). The third zone is where I will be in case of an emergency evacuation performing the tasks that I have been trained to do in the military as a first responder and healthcare provider (in isolated situations).  There is also heavy security near our plant in San Onofre, not to mention its right next to Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base.  With all of these facts how would you feel if there was a nuclear power plant located 125 miles near you? I will explain how I would feel in the next paragraph.

 

If I was at least 125 miles away from a nuclear power plant I would feel safe as long as I knew that all safety precautions were being exercised with extreme measures.  If I were within twelve miles away (which I am) I still wouldn’t feel threatened, I would want to see drills perfumed on the regular at least once a month. If I live within a mile and a half away from a plant I would simply move and not think twice about it, that’s just too close for comfort even as a first responder.  The public should always be informed on the amount of waste being put out by a local plant, the effects on the local eco system (reported annually). The local community should also be allowed to take part in all drills concerning a nuclear meltdown of any type.

 

So, today I have informed you on the guideline of nuclear power plants, the pros and cons of having a nuclear power plant in your local area. I have also provided you with resources so that you make your own informed decisions on this subject. I hope that my personal experiences and knowledge with nuclear power will aid in the knowledge of people who are interested in this subject.  In conclusion, nuclear power is the wave of the future rather we like it or not. There is a lot of money to be made and many jobs/careers that are involved with nuclear power; this will boost our economy significantly as long as it is done safely.  We should do our homework now and aid with this movement to make sure that our most precious resources (the people) are not harmed in any way.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Brook, B. (2011.  Fukushima Nuclear Accident – a simple and accurate explanation

Retrieved on September 2nd, 2011 from http://bravenewclimate.com/2011/03/13/fukushima-simple-explanation/

Greenemeier, L., Is Seawater a Last Resort to Cooling Japan’s Nuclear Reactors? 2011, Retrieved on Sept 04 2011 from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=japan-earthquake-tsunami-nuclear-seawater

 

Lai,L. and Morrison,K. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation(NAPF), 1998-2011, Nuclear Energy Factsheet. Retrieved on Sept 04 2011 from:

Nuclear Energy Institute, New Nuclear Plants: An Engine for Job Creation, Economic Growth 2011, And Retreived on September 3rd from:  https://smr.inl.gov/ ocument.ashx

 

D Macintosh, A. 2007, Sitting Nuclear Power Plants in Australia, Australia Institute retrieved from: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:KtJQ6WxxRoAJ:https://www.tai.org.au/documents/downloads/WP96.pdf+Where+power+plants+should+be+placed&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShZJm_Ke3XCbcBLEKeJdKTVndSbqAmpxvWFPEZaFlKB5q9B8CaukKbiaR-gXQpY6Ngox6-ENSXW2-Sg8fe4kQzsYzVSkJl2uTPnl00W8DprGU2bPh6Hsnjk5mWLejlhSQW_AlGd&sig=AHIEtbTEgo3dAB-EPRqS2McgpKHzJ4eRUA#

 

School of Physics, University of Melbourne, 2011. Everything you want to know about Nuclear Power. Retrieved September 4th, 2011 from: http://nuclearinfo.net/Nuclearpower/TheBenefitsOfNuclearPo

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I changed the margins to

Running head: Assignment 1

1

CHEMISTRY
1 Monday
6 Monday
11 Monday
16 Monday
21 Monday
26 Monday

ALGEBRA
2 Tuesday
7 Tuesday
12 Tuesday
17 Tuesday
22 Tuesday
27 Tuesday

HISTORY
3 Wednesday
8 Wednesday
13 Wednesday
18 Wednesday
23 Wednesday
28 Wednesday

ENGLISH
4 Thursday
9 Thursday
14 Thursday
19 Thursday
24 Thursday
29 Thursday

BIOLOGY
5 Friday
10 Friday
15 Friday
20 Friday
25 Friday
30 Friday

I changed the margins to moderate; I added a blue hue to my page background. I
also added a page border, a table and numbers by adding the calendar days to my table of
information involving class schedules for the month. I’ve included a header and footer in the
document as well as page numbers.

*Class schedule is based on any school schedule, not one in particular.

Page 1

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State three examples each of acids, bases, and salts commonly used in therapeutic processes. From the examples you state, select one acid, one base, and one salt and describe how and where they are used in therapeutic processes. Please note that your examples should not duplicate those already shared in your readings.

State three examples each of acids, bases, and salts commonly used in therapeutic processes. From the examples you state, select one acid, one base, and one salt and describe how and where they are used in therapeutic processes. Please note that your examples should not duplicate those already shared in your readings.

The three examples of acids, bases, and salts commonly used in therapeutic processes are:

Acids: ascorbic acid, hydrochloric acid, gamma-amino-butyric acid

Bases: sodium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate

Salts: sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium fluoride

Use of acids, bases and salts in therapeutic processes are:

Acid

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can be reserved inside to deactivate free radicals, else recognized as non-essential ionic compounds and has an important part in natural use.

Base
Calcium sulfate (gypsum) is employed in casts to alleviate broken bones. It is also used to clot soy milk proteins to make tofu and provide a serious basis of calcium to Asian countries.

Salt
Sodium fluoride is employed in dental goods to strengthen hydroxyapatite constituting the enamel in.

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Everything in our universe is made up from some type of chemical, and the knowledge to create new chemicals and reactions is responsible for the creation of new foods, drugs, materials etc. Without this knowledge, chemistry would be much less appealing and far less advanced for people to understand.

Running head:  IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY

Importance of Chemistry in Life and Society

Albert DeSena

University of Phoenix

Chemistry/110

Shameema Sarker

November 20, 2011

 

Abstract

Everything in our universe is made up from some type of chemical, and the knowledge to create new chemicals and reactions is responsible for the creation of new foods, drugs, materials etc.  Without this knowledge, chemistry would be much less appealing and far less advanced for people to understand.

 

Importance of Chemistry in Life and Society

It takes a chemist to teach chemistry, or so they say which may or may not be true but chemistry is a big part of our everyday life without us really even knowing it.  Chemical reactions is what makes life on earth possible from the creation of life to keeping people alive with medicines and machines, everything has some sort of chemistry in it.  Chemistry can also be dangerous by creating certain chemical imbalances like weapons to support militaries in completing certain missions.

Everything is made from some sort of chemicals.  A human, animals, the TV etc, everything that occurs in the world naturally is from some sort of chemical reaction.  The changing of leaves, blooming of flowers, even the making of the Colorado River thru the Grand Canyon is from a chemical reaction of erosion.

Chemistry is aiding in the improvement of healthcare, the conservation of natural resources, and the protection of the environment. Chemistry is the central science, central to the understanding of other sciences and technology.  Chemistry can help our industry to produce more materials for us such as paints , plastics , iron or steel , cement , kerosine , and also motor oil. Chemistry helps also our farmers to enrich the soil with chemicals like insecticides and pesticides to gain fresh fruits and vegetables.

Society depends on accuracy and precision in many places.   One example is at the gas pumps.   The pumps can be accurate in showing that gas is flowing, but this is not a precise measurement of how much is pumped.   The pumps must not only know how much is pumped, but also be very precise to ensure the right amount is charged.   Small variances in precision can cost the company or customers large sums of money if the pump not measuring correctly.
Another example can occur if someone is using a navigation system.   The system may precisely track a vehicle’s movements, but its accuracy may be off.   It could show the vehicle ten miles from its actual position.   This could cause the driver to go the wrong way down a one-way street, drive where there is no road, or fall off a cliff.
The military depends on accuracy and precision during war.   If a bomber is targeting an area with many civilians close by, both accuracy and precision are important to avoid collateral damage.   However, if the target is the only thing in the area, large bombs may be used to destroy an area.

The precision and accuracy of scientific measurements have some degree of error, but the more times trials are run, errors will most likely average itself out.  The closer it is, the more accurate the measurement is. Precision on the other hand tells about the ability of the measurement system to produce the same result under a given set of conditions when it is subjected to repeated trials.

 

 

References

http://www.edurite.com

http://mrwhat.is.com

 

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About four hundred and fifty billion years ago, both Earth and Venus were basically created having similar size, density and composition. But as of today, the two could hardly be considered “identical”. Even though they are very near each other as far as distance, they are very far from “identical”. The reasoning behind this is based on the term “Runaway Greenhouse Effect”. The planet Venus holds the key to what may happen to Earth if the greenhouse gasses continue to climb.

Running head:  VENUS: RUNAWAY GREENHOUSE GONE AWRY

Venus: Runaway Greenhouse Gone Awry

Albert DeSena

University of Phoenix

Chemistry/110

Shameema Sarker

December 17, 2011

 

About four hundred and fifty billion years ago, both Earth and Venus were basically created having similar size, density and composition.  But as of today, the two could hardly be considered “identical”.  Even though they are very near each other as far as distance, they are very far from “identical”.  The reasoning behind this is based on the term “Runaway Greenhouse Effect”.  The planet Venus holds the key to what may happen to Earth if the greenhouse gasses continue to climb.  Although Venus is somewhat closer to the Sun than Earth, the surface of Venus is hundreds of degrees hotter than expected.  Approximately 850 degree F, and many scientists believe this is due to the greenhouse effect.  The greenhouse effect lets radiation from the Sun enter the atmosphere, but prevents much of the heat from escaping.  The greenhouse effect works on Venus just like it does on Earth, but because Venus has almost a million times more carbon dioxide (CO2) than earth, the effect is obviously much stronger. CO2 is the most abundant gas on Venus, which accounts for 96 percent of the atmosphere, the second most common gas being nitrogen. This balance is not surprising when you consider that the Earth’s atmosphere would also be mostly CO2 if the gas were not imprisoned in marine sediments.  (MacNeill, 2009)

If the greenhouse heating increased in the Earth’s atmosphere by increasing the amount of solar radiation falling to the Earth, or by increasing the burning of fossil fuels, the production of water vapors and carbon dioxide would increase the temperature in the atmosphere hence causing the greenhouse effect.   It would be considered a runaway greenhouse effect if the temperature in the atmosphere approached the boiling point and the oceans would convert to water vapor increasing the effectiveness of trapping and accelerate the greenhouse effect.  This would cause the temperatures to rise higher, which in turn would make the oceans evaporate more quickly more commonly referred to as the “positive feedback loop”.

We can envision even a further runaway stage in this scenario. Suppose the preceding runaway raised the temperature so high that chemical reactions begin to occur that drive the carbon dioxide from the rocks into the atmosphere (the process is called sublimation; a few hundred degrees Celsius would be sufficient). Then another runaway would occur as the carbon dioxide feeding into the atmosphere would accelerate the heating, which would in turn accelerate the transfer of carbon dioxide from the rocks to the atmosphere.  (UTK.edu 2004)

After all this is done, the atmosphere would finally stabilize at a higher temperature, and pressure would drive all the carbon dioxide from the rocks, the temperature would be hundreds of degrees higher and the atmospheric pressure would be hundreds of times more than it is today.

Thus, we believe that in the case of Venus the initial solar heating kept oceans from forming, or kept them from staying around if they did form, and the subsequent lack of rainfall and failure of plant life to evolve kept the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rather than binding it in the rocks as is the case for the Earth; thus, Venus has an environmental disaster for an atmosphere.
The sobering warning for us is obvious: we have to be extremely concerned about processes such as burning of fossil fuels in large volumes that might (we don’t know for sure because the scientific questions are complex) have the potential to trigger a runaway greenhouse effect and produce on the Earth atmospheric conditions such as those found on Venus

 

 
 

References

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/venus/greenhouse.html

http://www.articlesbase.com/environment-articles/venus-a-runaway-greenhouse-effect-533826.html

http://michelle-macneill.suite101.com/some-facts-about-the-planet-venus-a179137

http://carbonbasin.com/venus-a-runaway-greenhouse-effect/

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Dark matter does not absorb or emit light. So far, astronomers have inferred its presence only indirectly by measuring the effects of its gravity.

Dark matter does not absorb or emit light. So far, astronomers have inferred its presence only indirectly by measuring the effects of its gravity.

But now, by observing a massive collision between two large clusters of galaxies, astronomers have detected what they say could only be the signature of dark matter.

The scientists used optical and x-ray telescopes to measure the location of mass in the collided formation, known as the “bullet cluster” because of its shape.

More than 90 percent of the visible mass in a galaxy cluster is hot gas. The rest is stars located within individual galaxies.

But most of the mass—and thus matter—is located within the galaxies, or the blue areas, scientists say.

In other words, the bulk of visible matter in the clusters has been separated from the majority of mass—which therefore must be dark matter.

“This proves in a simple and direct way that dark matter exists,”

Scientists calculate that dark matter makes up about 25 percent of the universe.