what is audit risk

Audit Risk is the risk that an auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements.
Audit Risk = Inherent Risk x Control Risk x Detection Risk
Audit risk may be considered as the product of the various risks which may be encountered in the performance of the audit. In order to keep the overall audit risk of engagements below acceptable limit, the auditor must assess the level of risk pertaining to each component of audit risk.

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This week I have

My Nuclear Opinions

This week I have learned a lot about nuclear power plants. Along with these discoveries I’ve gathered some chilling factors about nuclear power as well.  There are many risks and some very productive gains involved with nuclear power opposed to other types of power production such as: fossil, hydroelectric or solar. In this writing today I plan on covering all these facts along with what needs to be addressed when building a power plant of this type and locations that are suitable for these sites. When you get done reading I want you to be informed on as much knowledge about nuclear power and I would like to explain how my family and I feel about a nuclear power plant being about 5 miles away from my back door. So, please allow me to share with you my nuclear opinions starting off with the pro versus the cons.

 

The benefits of nuclear power

Whenever I see the words nuclear and power put together I get nervous. I’ve seen what nuclear power plants have done to the people in Japan who were exposed to very small amounts of radiation had been pre-filtered (Brook,2011). Though no one has died I suspect that there will be some health defects in the near future just wait and see. Nuclear power plants produce millions of jobs to the nation. In fact, I have listed a couple of numbers that will probably blow your mind. According to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) pre-constructing a power plant involves over 14,000-15,000 jobs. Construction of nuclear power plants  yield 20,000 direct construction jobs and operations after 2016 will produce 700 actual jobs multiplied by 16 (NEI,2011) .  Uranium is the material that powers these power plants at the moment and we have about 500 years worth of uranium in supply (School of Physics, 2011).  Next I will explain the bad things that I’ve learned about nuclear energy and its wastes.

 

The Not so good things about Nuclear Power

The not so good things about nuclear power were alarming and I had to tell you about it.  The by-product of nuclear power is plutonium; this product can be used to refuel plants or to cause destruction to others in the form of weaponry (Lai and Morrison, 1998-2011). To me this alone is a very disturbing fact to know about this subject. There is always room for error when dealing with any type of power plant and its reproduction. One of the biggest fears I have is that while all this money is being made we will miss out on important control measures and that someday we will all have to pay for this. History proves that time after time we find out that inspectors were paid off not to inspect important things to cut the costs of repairs. This to me should not be allowed to happen with nuclear power, people’s lives are at danger here. Nuclear power plants pose as targets for terrorist and they are ideal if someone wanted to send a message of fear and destruction. Next I will give some guidelines of where nuclear power plants should be placed and what factors should be considered before building one of these plants.

 

Where power plants should be placed?

I think that the single most important factor to be considered would be the people. If the people don’t want anything to do with a nuclear power plant then don’t build one. Extensive research and casting of votes from every citizen in the community that the plant will built in is a must.  I live next to the  San Onofre nuclear power plant and it is located on the coast, so I’m going to take a wild guess  and say that Nuclear plants must have access to water at all times. I remember reading about the nuclear meltdown in Japan and they needed a lot of water to cool those reactors off when they were overheating (Greenemeier, 2011).   I’ve also noticed that the power plant that I live by is in a remote area (about 3-5 miles from any residential area), so I’m going to also assume that a good location for a plant will be away from residential areas and in a place where if something happened the local eco-system will not be harmed.  The water also provides power for the turbines to spin at high velocity (Macintosh, A. 2007) as I read further I realized that there are zones for nuclear plants to have in order to protect the local community and they are:  Zone 1 has to be approximately 1 kilometer away from the original facility. Zone 2 is to be five kilometers away from the plant, this is also known as the protective zone (Macintosh, A. 2007).  There is an emergency planning zone (Zone 3) and this zone is about 20 kilometers away from the plant (Macintosh, A. 2007). The third zone is where I will be in case of an emergency evacuation performing the tasks that I have been trained to do in the military as a first responder and healthcare provider (in isolated situations).  There is also heavy security near our plant in San Onofre, not to mention its right next to Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base.  With all of these facts how would you feel if there was a nuclear power plant located 125 miles near you? I will explain how I would feel in the next paragraph.

 

If I was at least 125 miles away from a nuclear power plant I would feel safe as long as I knew that all safety precautions were being exercised with extreme measures.  If I were within twelve miles away (which I am) I still wouldn’t feel threatened, I would want to see drills perfumed on the regular at least once a month. If I live within a mile and a half away from a plant I would simply move and not think twice about it, that’s just too close for comfort even as a first responder.  The public should always be informed on the amount of waste being put out by a local plant, the effects on the local eco system (reported annually). The local community should also be allowed to take part in all drills concerning a nuclear meltdown of any type.

 

So, today I have informed you on the guideline of nuclear power plants, the pros and cons of having a nuclear power plant in your local area. I have also provided you with resources so that you make your own informed decisions on this subject. I hope that my personal experiences and knowledge with nuclear power will aid in the knowledge of people who are interested in this subject.  In conclusion, nuclear power is the wave of the future rather we like it or not. There is a lot of money to be made and many jobs/careers that are involved with nuclear power; this will boost our economy significantly as long as it is done safely.  We should do our homework now and aid with this movement to make sure that our most precious resources (the people) are not harmed in any way.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Brook, B. (2011.  Fukushima Nuclear Accident – a simple and accurate explanation

Retrieved on September 2nd, 2011 from http://bravenewclimate.com/2011/03/13/fukushima-simple-explanation/

Greenemeier, L., Is Seawater a Last Resort to Cooling Japan’s Nuclear Reactors? 2011, Retrieved on Sept 04 2011 from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=japan-earthquake-tsunami-nuclear-seawater

 

Lai,L. and Morrison,K. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation(NAPF), 1998-2011, Nuclear Energy Factsheet. Retrieved on Sept 04 2011 from:

Nuclear Energy Institute, New Nuclear Plants: An Engine for Job Creation, Economic Growth 2011, And Retreived on September 3rd from:  https://smr.inl.gov/ ocument.ashx

 

D Macintosh, A. 2007, Sitting Nuclear Power Plants in Australia, Australia Institute retrieved from: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:KtJQ6WxxRoAJ:https://www.tai.org.au/documents/downloads/WP96.pdf+Where+power+plants+should+be+placed&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShZJm_Ke3XCbcBLEKeJdKTVndSbqAmpxvWFPEZaFlKB5q9B8CaukKbiaR-gXQpY6Ngox6-ENSXW2-Sg8fe4kQzsYzVSkJl2uTPnl00W8DprGU2bPh6Hsnjk5mWLejlhSQW_AlGd&sig=AHIEtbTEgo3dAB-EPRqS2McgpKHzJ4eRUA#

 

School of Physics, University of Melbourne, 2011. Everything you want to know about Nuclear Power. Retrieved September 4th, 2011 from: http://nuclearinfo.net/Nuclearpower/TheBenefitsOfNuclearPo

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State three examples each of acids, bases, and salts commonly used in therapeutic processes. From the examples you state, select one acid, one base, and one salt and describe how and where they are used in therapeutic processes. Please note that your examples should not duplicate those already shared in your readings.

State three examples each of acids, bases, and salts commonly used in therapeutic processes. From the examples you state, select one acid, one base, and one salt and describe how and where they are used in therapeutic processes. Please note that your examples should not duplicate those already shared in your readings.

The three examples of acids, bases, and salts commonly used in therapeutic processes are:

Acids: ascorbic acid, hydrochloric acid, gamma-amino-butyric acid

Bases: sodium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate

Salts: sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium fluoride

Use of acids, bases and salts in therapeutic processes are:

Acid

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can be reserved inside to deactivate free radicals, else recognized as non-essential ionic compounds and has an important part in natural use.

Base
Calcium sulfate (gypsum) is employed in casts to alleviate broken bones. It is also used to clot soy milk proteins to make tofu and provide a serious basis of calcium to Asian countries.

Salt
Sodium fluoride is employed in dental goods to strengthen hydroxyapatite constituting the enamel in.

0

Racism came to Americans in the 17th century when settlers of England, Span, France and Dutch took advantage of land which was owned and occupied by Native Americans, which they began to use slaves imported from Africa. It is a word which means to differentiate people on the basis of their color.

Racism came to Americans in the 17th century when settlers ofEngland,Span,France and Dutch took advantage of land which was owned and occupied by Native Americans, which they began to use slaves imported fromAfrica.  It is a word which means to differentiate people on the basis of their color.  Racism differentiates white skin people from that of black skin humans.  It creates a feeling of hatred and superiority in the minds of the people with white or fairer color complexion towards the people with darker skin tone.  It divides the world into two groups- one containing human with fairer skin color and the other containing people with darker skin color.  The people are themselves not allowed to choose their category but they are forced to fall into one of the two groups.  Here people are not judged on their social position, religion or power but on their color.  Darker people are always considered inferior to fairer ones.  They develop the feeling of inferiority which at time comes out as rebellious and evil actions.

 

Racism is as old as society.  It began as far back as the late 16th century.  And by the end of the 17th century it had become an established, systematic and conscious justification for the most degrading forms of slavery.  History reveals that slavery had originally begun inGreece andRome.  But they knew nothing about race.  They had slaves which belonged to both white and black community.  In face, majority of their slaves belonged to the white creed of people.  But slavery induced racism started fromAfrica toBritain and then toAmerica.

 

According to CLR James Modern Politics-“ The conception of dividing people by race began with slave trade.”  The expansion of imperialism by the white community gave a new meaning to racism.  The black people were then not allowed to cross the boundaries of the white community meaning blacks were not allowed in the countries of the whites.  But the capitalism was at its heights inAmericaandAustralia, so they needed workers to expand their business.  Therefore, foreign workers were imported fromWest AfricaandAsiawhere they were employed as employees or rather slaves.  And this distinction created a wedge in the working class.  But the concept of racism soon fed with the advancement of education and technology.

Racism is a very bad practice which shatters the individuals self confidence and self respect.  It creates poor physical and mental condition.  It also helps in the development of differences between people which can take the form of war at times.  So, we being a part of the educated community should not practice racism and also raise our voice if we see any wrong being done.

 

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As you start your journey into the world of health care it is essential that you begin developing a vocabulary of the health care industry. To start based from your readings, define the following terms in your own words. (Faculty can add or alter terms to suit their student base.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name Here

UniversityofPhoenix

HCS/235

Instructor Information here

Due Date here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grading Criteria

 

Health Care Terms

As you start your journey into the world of health care it is essential that you begin developing a vocabulary of the health care industry. To start based from your readings, define the following terms in your own words.  (Faculty can add or alter terms to suit their student base.)

 

Medicare: A federal government program that pays for certain health care expenses for people aged 65 or older. Enrolled individuals must pay deductibles and co-payments, but much of their medical costs are covered by the program. Medicare is less comprehensive than some other health care programs, but it is an important source of post-retirement health care. Medicare is divided into three parts. Part A covers hospital bills, Part B covers doctor bills, and Part C provides the option to choose from a package of health care plans.
Medicaid: A program, funded by the federal and state governments, which pays for medical care for those who can’t afford it. The program typically helps low-income individuals or families, as well as elderly or disabled individuals. To receive Medicaid, an individual must meet certain requirements (such as income level), and also must go through an application process. Although all states participate in the Medicaid program, each state manages their own program, and is able to set different requirements and other guidelines.

 

Certification (physicians): This is where Doctors have taken an exam and have become certified to work in their area of specialty.  If a Dr. is not certified he or she is unable to work to his full potentials and some services may not be covered when seeing a uncertified Dr.

 

 

Public health: It helps in aiding good in all communities.  It helps to keep out environment healthier, teaches and educates toward a healthier lifestyle which also helps in preventative medicines like the vaccines in which we as the people receive, and also controls communicable diseases

 

 

Ambulatory care: This is for patients who have received health care but on an outpatient.  This can included but does not limit: Physical Therapy, blood work, radiology services, and many more services which can be performed without being an inpatient.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This assignment is due in Week Two.

60 Percent

Points Available

7

Points Earned

X/7

Additional Comments:
  • Define:
    • Medicare
    • Medicaid
    • Certification (physicians)
    • Public health
    • Ambulatory care
 7

7/7

Good definitions on the 4 topics.
Organization/Development/Mechanics

20 Percent

Points Available

3

Points Earned

X/3

Additional Comments:
  • The definitions are an appropriate length.
  • Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed: spelling is correct.
  • A cover page is included – APA 6th Edition
 3

3/3

Definitions have appropriate length. Rules of grammar are identified. A cover page is included.
 

 
 

Total Available

Total Earned

 
 Terrific job on the Week 2 submission. Good overall definitions with appropriate length and understandable terminology. Keep up the good work.

10

10

 

 

 

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Complete the Health Care Industry Overview Grid that is located below. There are many areas within the health care that are options for career placement or advancement. Research different fields within the industry, such as phamacuetical/drug, health information systems, and long-term care/gerontology, and fill in each box to contain information regarding the health care industry. Add three additional health care options of your choice for a total of six (6). There is an example that is already started to help with the process, but ensure you include adequate information to support your findings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY: I certify that the attached paper is my original work and has not previously been submitted by me or anyone else for any class. I further declare I have cited all sources from which I used language, ideas, and information, whether quoted verbatim or paraphrased, and that any assistance of any kind, which I received while producing this paper, has been acknowledged in the References section. I have obtained written permission from the copyright holder for any trademarked material, logos, or images from the Internet or other sources. I further agree that my name typed on the line below is intended to have, and shall have, the same validity as my handwritten signature.

Student’s signature (name typed here is equivalent to a signature):

__________________________ ___

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name here

UniversityofPhoenix

HCS/235

Professor:

Due:

 

Grading Criteria

 

Health Care Industry Overview

Complete the Health Care Industry Overview Grid that is located below. There are many areas within the health care that are options for career placement or advancement. Research different fields within the industry, such as phamacuetical/drug, health information systems, and long-term care/gerontology, and fill in each box to contain information regarding the health care industry. Add three additional health care options of your choice for a total of six (6).  There is an example that is already started to help with the process, but ensure you include adequate information to support your findings.

Use a minimum of three references to support your information.

This assignment is due in Week Three.

 

 

Industry

Career Explanation

Industry Examples

Role of Health Care Personnel

Manufacturing (Equipment/Supplies) Example:

Health Care manufacturing deals with the making of consumer products that help individuals deal with health care issues. If it looks as if there is a market big enough to make a profitable product, the product is unique in the market and the product can be protected (via patenting or some other means) then businesses are commonly encouraged to dive into the expensive product development phase.

Example:

– Bandages, braces, IV tubing, hospital beds, wheelchairs

– Consumer health care products

 

Example:

Health Care personnel can move into this industry to satisfy a need within health care organizations. This would deal more with products than patient care or administration.

Pharmaceutical/Drug There are so many forms of pharmaceutical.  Pharmaceutical develops or manufactures, prepares, dispenses, and/or sells drugs that are used in the health field. medications, Educational brochures, promotional items(which they are not allowing as much anymore)

 

Pharmacy

One is where they manufacture and prepare medications.  Second, is a pharmacist this is someone who dispense medications.  Third, there are pharmaceutical sales rep this is a person who goes around mostly to doctor’s offices and hospitals promoting a medication.
Health Information Systems Health information systems are technology in the health care system.  It provides the customer care that is needed through clinical, financial, and administration Computers, printers, faxes, records, EMR’s, PDA’s.

 

Hospitals, physician offices, Nursing homes, and just about any medical office setting.

As a HIS personnel you would be working mainly with records on the computer.  These might be medical records, coding and billing, or inputting patient information as a nurse or MA.
Long-Term Care/Gerontology -          Long-Term care means treating patients for more than 90 days.  Most of the time this is for the elderly, but it can also be for patients who are a wide variety of ages that have chronic conditions. -                   Elderly, sick patients (cancer), patient in accidents.

 

–          Nursing home, hospitals, adult daycare, hospice, rehab, chronic care facilities, foster homes, and more.

 

Mostly work with patients as a LPN, MA, CAN, or RN.  They also have volunteers, home care aides

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Management Case-Management is a collaborative process of assessment planning, facilitation and advocacy for options and services to meet a consumers health needs through communication and available resources to promote high quality cost-effective outcomes. Manage emergency assistance and crisis, monitor and evaluate effectiveness of each services, provide referrals to clients Low Income, Mentally Ill, Frail Elderly, Adovacy they makes sure proper use of resource are maintained. Case managers are responsible for getting the client’s needs met. Whether a client needs health or social services, a case manager ensures proper protocol and procedures are carried out to get clients the services they need
Discharge Planner A discharge planner is a core member of a hospital patient’s care-facilitation team. Working with the attending physician, specialists and bedside nurses, the discharge planner helps to coordinate the patient’s transition to life after the hospital–often working with nursing homes, medical-equipment providers and insurance companies to seamlessly facilitate a patient’s move to the next level of care.

 

Work closely with Dr. and bedside nurses

Utilize management specialist and associate clinical professional to help pt in an acute setting

Help remove barriers to pt timely discharge from hospital or long term acute care

Resolve clinical psychosocial and financial barriers on patient behalfs

Discharge planners identify clients who require discharge planning, enable the problem-free transfer of patients from one facility to another (e.g. community care centers, aged-care facilities, hospices) and constantly review and determine the use of resources such as staff and medical facilities which are required to maintain the quality of care for the patient outside the hospital.

 

Ambulatory Care When a patient needs medical attention without the need for admission, it is called ambulatory care. Ambulatory care includes several medical procedures or treatments that can be performed on an ambulatory basis. Eamples of ambulatory care include physician offices visits, lab and radiology, out-patient surgical procedures, rehabilitation therapy and visits to specialists. The word ambulatory means capable of walking,’ so ambulatory care would mean that you are able to walk in and walk out of the health care facility that is providing the medical care. The ambulatory care setting employs a variety of personnel who carry out the functions essential to the daily operations. The registered professional nurse coordinates the activities carried out by both licensed personnel and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Unlicensed personnel (UAPs) perform the non-nursing health-related activities in this setting. The delegation of responsibilities to other licensed professionals, and the assignment of activities to unlicensed assistive personnel requires professional judgment and knowledge of the roles of both licensed and unlicensed personnel as well as the laws, rules and regulations that govern nursing practice. Registered professional nurses practicing ambulatory care nursing include generic, advanced and specialty-educated practitioners. Implementation of the core components of the ambulatory care nursing role and utilization of ambulatory care nurses (RN, LPN, NP) and assistive personnel varies significantly across ambulatory care

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Austin, Anne.Wetle,Victoria. “TheUnited StatesHealth Care System”  Chapter 10.  2008.

 

Freidman, Scott.  “Facts about Health Care Information Systems”.  March 23, 2010.  http://www.ehow.com/about_6117257_health-care-information-systems.html.

 

Pharmaceutical Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition]  & (P) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. http://www.bing.com/Dictionary/search?q=define+pharmaceutical&FORM=DTPDIA&qpvt=what+is+pharmaceutical.

 

 

 

 

0

What does “health” mean to you?

Grading Criteria                                         Trekeita Moore

 

Perspective on Health Care

Complete the Perspective on Health Care Questionnaire located below. Some of these questions are related to real life experiences you have seen or experienced in obtaining health care services for yourself or family members.  Health care services can be any aspect along the health care continuum such as doctor’s visits, dentist, clinic visits, and getting blood drawn, to being a patient in a hospital or nursing home.

Several questions also focus on your career aspirations within the health care industry.  Be prepared to discuss your completed responses in Week One.

  1. What does “health” mean to you?

Health means eating right living longer eliminating stress, resting more to be able to function properly during our daily lives.  Health is also a condition of a person mind, body, spirit in others words being free from illness, injury and or pain

 

  1. Are you currently employed in a health care delivery setting? (If not skip to question 4)

Yes I am, I am a LVN… License Vocational Nurse at St. Francis Medical Center on Med-Surge Unit.

 

  1. If you are working in health care, how can this degree expand your career opportunities?

Working as a health care administrator will give my career a great responsibility in a management position.  It will give me the opportunity to oversee hospitals, private care clinics, nursing homes and varies of other health care practices.

 

  1. If you are not currently working in health care, explain your interest in obtaining a health care degree.

N/A

 

  1. Hospitals are the best known employers of health workers with expanding opportunities.  List a minimum of two other employers that are often overlooked as part of the industry and offer career opportunities in health care.
  2. 1.     Billing and Coding Offices
  3. 2.     Health Education Intuitions
  4. 3.     Government institution such as prison systems and military
  5. 4.     Marketing for Health Services
  6. 5.     Nursing Homes and Rehabilitation

 

  1. How often do you access any type of health care service?
  2. Seldom (every other year or longer)
  3. Annually
  4. Every six months
  5. Almost monthly
  6. e.     Weekly or more often

 

  1. As you access services, have you had positive or negative experiences?  Explain.

I have been involved in the health care for 11 years.  I have experience both negative and positive.  For example my insurance carrier, I have a good plan so far when it comes to seeing my primary care doctor, but when it comes to ordering my prescriptions is the problem I run into.  Also, I have to wait weeks before my referral is approved and crazy and it might sound they are the ones who tells you if you need the referral or not regardless of what your doctor tell them.

 

  1. Are you experiencing increased costs for health care services? (Increased co-pays, medications, insurance premiums, etc.)  Explain.

Yes, I have experience the increased of co-pays where I was paying 5 dollars to visit I now pay 15 dollars for a single doctors visit, also with medication such as vaccines we are not covered under insurance and birth control method is no longer under the benefit coverage so you have to pay out of the pocket and they are expensive.

 

  1. Have you used alternative locations for fast or less expensive care, such as an urgent care or a store based walk up clinic? If so, what was your experience with this delivery option?

Yes, I have used free clinics basic check up because you can walk in with out appoints and the service is faster.

 

If you could change one aspect of health care in theU.S.what would that be? Explain.

If I could change one aspect of health care it would be to make the cost of healthcare cheaper so that everyone would be able to afford the services which will allow many individuals to have proper treatment without worrying about over expensed treatment care.

This assignment is due in Week One.

Content

60 Percent

Points Available

6

Points Earned

X/6

Additional Comments:
  • Completed questionnaire:
    • What does “health” mean to you?
    • Are you currently employed in a health care delivery setting?
    • If you are working in health care, how can this degree expand your career opportunities?
    • If you are not currently working in health care, explain your interest in obtaining a health care degree.
    • List a minimum of two other employers that are often overlooked as part of the industry and offer career opportunities in health care.
    • How often do you access any type of health care service?
    • As you access services, have you had positive or negative experiences?  Explain.
    • Are you experiencing increased costs for health care services? (Increased co-pays, medications, insurance premiums, etc.)  Explain.
    • Have you used alternative locations for fast or less expensive care, such as an urgent care or a store based walk up clinic? If so, what was your experience with this delivery option?
    • If you could change one aspect of health care in theU.S.what would that be? Explain.
 

 
Organization/Development

20 Percent

Points Available

2

Points Earned

X/2

Additional Comments:
  • The questions are answered with an appropriate length.
  • The introduction provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points.
  • The conclusion is logical, flows, and reviews the major points.
 

 
Mechanics

20 Percent

Points Available

2

Points Earned

X/2

Additional Comments:
  • The answers—including tables and graphs, headings, title page, and reference page— is consistent with APA formatting guidelines and meets course-level requirements.
  • Intellectual property is recognized with in-text citations and a reference page.
  • Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed; spelling is correct
 

 
 

Total Available

Total Earned

 
 

10

 

 

0

When an organization has a project that needs to be completed, theyfigure out a strategy and choose a project team to complete it. The most important is that they use good communication to maintain effective teamwork at knowing how to make key points in a project to work. This involves the use of communications management, team selection, project revisions, and performance monitoring. Putting these areas together and using them efficiently will help any team get the project done efficiently to where the organization can approve the project. This can range from how to manage the amount of employees to hire for the quarter up to who could be the next CEO. No matter the project or task communication is and will be important. That gives the effective teamwork that can allow key points in a project to work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kevin Redburn, Abram Garcia, Delius Cheng, Christine Radford, Angela Watson

MGT/437

March 19, 2012

JO-YU (ROY) CHUANG


Team Creation Paper

When an organization has a project that needs to be completed, theyfigure out a strategy and choose a project team to complete it.  The most important is that they use good communication to maintain effective teamwork at knowing how to make key points in a project to work.  This involves the use of communications management, team selection, project revisions, and performance monitoring.  Putting these areas together and using them efficiently will help any team get the project done efficiently to where the organization can approve the project.  This can range from how to manage the amount of employees to hire for the quarter up to who could be the next CEO.  No matter the project or task communication is and will be important.  That gives the effective teamwork that can allow key points in a project to work.

Communications Management is important to keep the members of a project management team up-to-date on the progress of the project. A communication plan clarifies how the project manager will communicate significant information to the stakeholders who need to know. The goals, strategies, activities, timeframes, and stakeholders are explained in the communication plan. Communication must be providedto project stakeholders so tasks are completedon schedule and conflicts can be resolved.

Processes can breakdown when communication among the team members and project stakeholders is not sufficient. Communication breakdown could in turn result in unfavorable outcomes of the final project,such as additional costs or time overruns. A communication plan will ascertain what information needs to be communicatedto the management and the customer. That information must be reportedin a timely manner and readily available. Reports should be providedwith the status of the project, and measures of the progress of the project. Forecasting can occur when reporting if tasks are on time, on whether or not the project is within the budget and within the scope of the project. Performance can be measuredby comparing actual progress to projected progress.

Communications management is the basic skill set of developing an agenda to manage meetings, and plans for resolution of conflicts. Deciding the appropriate method of communication, whether it should be an informal memo or a formal report, a face-to-face meeting or e-mail messaging, are dependent upon the stakeholders.Presentation techniques can include the use of visual aids,such as PowerPointpresentations. Possible barriers that influence the project or conflicts that may occur to interrupt or delay the project should be communicatedquickly. Examples are labor strike anywhere along the supply chain, or extreme whether that could include tornado, flood, or earthquake.

Documents that provide information can be postedto the company website on a monthly basis. E-mail bulletins can be sent out regularly. Weekly status meetings to brief management with presentations showing the status of the current stage of the project should be scheduled.A meeting should occur every six weeks to update management on the current state of the project.

There is several ways to organize management when running an organization, depending on the needs. Things to consider when choosing a project organization include the size of the project and the expected length of time to complete the project as well as needed resources. A key factor is deciding how many managers may be neededfor different areas of the project. In taking these factors into consideration Team A will be following the project structure known as the functional organization.

The functional organization was chosenas it is most commonly used and best used for small organizations as is the case with team A. It requires the project being simplybroken up into smaller sections. The smaller sections for a kitchen remodel would be the contractor, vendors, andmanagement. A kitchen remodel should only require one manager to oversee the project. The project manager would work closely with the contractor and other vendors to make sure everything is on track and on budget. One manager will allow quick reactions to problems and reduce any miscommunication. One manager is also beneficial as the manager would have the needed flexibility to make changes as needed.

In structuring the project manager will generally ask two questions. These questions include asking if the project manager is properly placedin the organization and if the majority of the tasks in the project are internal or external. In the kitchen remodel majority of the tasks will be internal by replacing old piping, upgrading, orbuilding cabinets and fixtures. External projects would be shopping the needed materials and appliances.

During the project conflicts can arise that the team must identify and devise plans to prevent or eliminate these conflicts. One potential problem involves scheduling conflicts. To prevent this, Team A must collaborate with other resource areas, such as Phoenix Designs and Custom Designs to create a schedule that will include hours of the day and days of the week that the workers can perform; this will also include holidays like Easter. Another conflict that can arise is if another project occurs, either from the team or from a construction crew. Scheduling a payment method is also important in reducing conflict. Team A andmanagers of the tasks will decide upon a payment method and date prior to starting the task. This can also create a problem if team members are not satisfied, therefore the contract will state that the team will not make payments until the work is complete and the team approves of the performance. By creating the linear responsibility matrix and the resource availability matrix the team along with other participating project members can limit the chance of conflicts arising through the collective knowledge of who is responsible for what and by the development of a schedule.

Table 1

Linear Responsibility Matrix

 
Table 2

Resource Availability Matrix

 

Performance monitoring for the project will use regular progress reports of each segment of the project from the task owners to project management during a recurring weekly meeting. Project management will summarize progress reports into a high-level report for stakeholders. Status reports should be submittedon a weekly basis using variances of cost and schedule of the project at the end of each week. The task owners will determine the cost variance and schedule variance to determine wither the project is on time and budget. Budgeted cost or work performed (BCWP), actual cost of work performed (ACWP), and budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) will be usedto determine cost variance (CV) and schedule variance (SV). Budgeted cost of work performed is the planned cost of work completed at the end of each week according to the planned budget. Actualcost of work performed is the Cost variance is the actualcost of the work completed at the end of the week. Budgeted cost of work schedule is the cost of the planned tasks scheduled to be completedat the end of the week according to the project plan. Cost variances are determinedusing the formula CV=(BCWP-ACWP)/ACWP (TutorialsPoint.com, 2012). Schedule variance will use the formula SV= (BCWP-BCWS)/BCWS (TutorialsPoint.com, 2012). Each report should also include any milestones or significant issues identified each week. The cost and schedule variance will help project management evaluate the performance of the project, award merit when performing above expectations, and address issues wereneeded.

Performance reports for stakeholders will come in summarized form. The stakeholder’s report will include a consolidated performance indicator, summarized key achievements, and issues. This report is designedwith high-level information to provide a simple and quick view of the projects progress. The project manager will take the information at the end of each work week, compile, and submit the stakeholder’s report by the end of Monday each week.

As people can seecommunications management, team selection, project revisions, and performance monitoring are very important to Team A for the completion of this project.  They can see by the charts it has been plannedthrough and the whole team is communicating while making sure the job is supervised.  Team A picked a team that can do the job and if any revisions are neededthey can take care of it.  They have a project manager in Christine,who is monitoring every aspects of the project and is communicating to the rest how things are progressing.  Not only are these aspects important to the project team doing the work they also apply to Team A inbeing able to use these methods for themselves as well.  Teamwork and communication are big reasons this project will be a success.

References:

TutorialsPoint.com. (2012). Cost Variance. Retrieved from http://www.tutorialspoint.com/earn_value_management/cost_variance.htm

TutorialsPoint.com. (2012). Schedule Variance. Retrieved from http://www.tutorialspoint.com/earn_value_management/schedule_variance.htm

 

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As we get started on this remodeling project there are a few things that need to be stated to make sure everyone knows exactly the job that they will be performing. Team A has giving the ideas and what they expect from the teams that are coming in to work on the remodel. Christine is the person who we have selected to head the project as in what can be approved as a purchase and making sure the project meets the timeline we have projected.

As we get started on this remodeling project there are a few things that need to be stated to make sure everyone knows exactly the job that they will be performing. Team A has giving the ideas and what they expect from the teams that are coming in to work on the remodel.  Christine is the person who we have selected to head the project as in what can be approved as a purchase and making sure the project meets the timeline we have projected.  When it comes to the designs of the kitchen we have hired Custom Designs.  They are in charge of the model design that includes the breakfast nook and all other area needs.  For the actual rebuilding and installing we have hired Phoenix Designs.  This company is one of the best and is in charge of rebuilding the cabinets and all other labor specified work.  All the work that is to be done will be in the kitchen area of Team A’s residence.  The remodel job has a time period of two months to be completed which is planned around a 40 an hour week schedule Monday through Friday unless something out of the ordinary comes up like weather delays.  If that is to happen a weekend schedule can be put in place.  To make sure the timeline is on track Christine will probably check in once a week to make sure that things will be on track and update Team A on that basis.  We will have to setup dates for inspections from the county to make sure everything is up to code and I estimate that would be about seven weeks into the remodel.  That leaves a week to get everything up to any codes that have to be met for the county.  This remodel requires some specific appliances and areas to be included.  We ourselves will pick out the appliances to be put in, the color of the cabinets being built, that all countertop are to be granite, a breakfast nook in a suitable place for group or individual study, and other minor changes not necessarily needed to be listed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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As we keep moving on with this remodel we need to take a look at our network results and compare them too are project’s triple constraint. When dealing with the triple constraint we are looking at the project’s scope, schedule (time) and cost. Triple constraint is the balance of the project’s scope, schedule (time) and cost. It is sometimes called Dempster’s triangle wherein one of the sides or corners represents the scope, time and cost of a project being managed by the project managers. While looking at the project scope by using the SMART method everything will seem much clearer to everyone included.

As we keep moving on with this remodel we need to take a look at our network results and compare them too are project’s triple constraint.  When dealing with the triple constraint we are looking at the project’s scope, schedule (time) and cost.  Triple constraint is the balance of the project’s scope, schedule (time) and cost. It is sometimes called Dempster’s triangle wherein one of the sides or corners represents the scope, time and cost of a project being managed by the project managers.  While looking at the project scope by using the SMART method everything will seem much clearer to everyone included.

Team A specifically wants a better kitchen to provide more room to study, move around, and allow a good environment for educational needs.  Kitchen countertops will be made out of granite tops to allow an easier way to keep them clean.  Having all these members in the team more space will be needed which is why the counters and a walk in pantry will be built.  This will allow easier access and more storage room for food.  The breakfast nook will be added to give Team a more comfort in an easy setting to study and complete team projects together.

The ability to measure the work being done will be monitored by Team A and communicated to them by Christine.  Every time a task is completed she will go by and look to make sure it is up to the team’s approval.  This is a way they can test the work being done and done correctly.  Every project has to be measured and given final approval before the next task can be completed.  This ensures that everything will be done correctly and not tore down to be redone by any kind of mistakes.  There will be contingencies in place for people becoming sick, weather, or any accidents that may occur during the remodel.  This will ensure the project can be completed on and ready.  Even though the budget is at or above $50,000 we have to make sure that it is money well spent.

Teams A have built the plans for this kitchen and have agreed upon everything that is being done.  Christine is the person chosen to keep an eye on things as the remodel is moving on but, everyone has to approve of the work.  Christine will take pictures of the work as it progresses so the team can see what is being done.  Appliances, the colors, and locations of appliances are approved by the team.  If something does go wrong Christine is in charge of how to handle it through the team’s agreement.  An example would be a wall socket will not go in a wall near the stove so it cannot plug in.  It is suggested to her that the stove be moved to another place.  This decision has to be made now and Christine has the authority based by the team for that decision.  If she cannot think of one the team can go back and change things as they see fit.

Goals have now been set and everything has started.  The timeline that has been laid out shows that everything can be completed on time.  A schedule as you have seen has been laid out and shows the expected completion dates for every single action for the remodel.  The budget is not a problem and is already in an account for use to take care of any expense.  While going through the SOW and checking the chart it shows that everything is in place and that we have everything needed to complete the remodel.  All goals that have been set are realistic and now sit back and manage the remodel.

Even though it has been mentioned previously time is something that has to be right.  This remodel has to be finished by May 5, 2012 not any time later.  Going over all the information that has been provided through our SOW and the schedule listed is there enough time.  You have to watch because problems will happen.  Contingency plans need to be put into place for just this reason.  The ability to predict a situation is not going to happen but, being prepared for any situation is something you can do.

By going through the smart process and comparing the network results from our SOW and charts Team A seems to have everything planned out to get the job complete.  The Sow is sound and is thought out.  The budget is set and available at any time it is needed.  The timeline for the remodel is shown and has the ability to make its complete date.  They just have to keep communicating and managing the project as it keeps going through the timeline.