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Everything in our universe is made up from some type of chemical, and the knowledge to create new chemicals and reactions is responsible for the creation of new foods, drugs, materials etc. Without this knowledge, chemistry would be much less appealing and far less advanced for people to understand.

Running head:  IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY

Importance of Chemistry in Life and Society

Albert DeSena

University of Phoenix

Chemistry/110

Shameema Sarker

November 20, 2011

 

Abstract

Everything in our universe is made up from some type of chemical, and the knowledge to create new chemicals and reactions is responsible for the creation of new foods, drugs, materials etc.  Without this knowledge, chemistry would be much less appealing and far less advanced for people to understand.

 

Importance of Chemistry in Life and Society

It takes a chemist to teach chemistry, or so they say which may or may not be true but chemistry is a big part of our everyday life without us really even knowing it.  Chemical reactions is what makes life on earth possible from the creation of life to keeping people alive with medicines and machines, everything has some sort of chemistry in it.  Chemistry can also be dangerous by creating certain chemical imbalances like weapons to support militaries in completing certain missions.

Everything is made from some sort of chemicals.  A human, animals, the TV etc, everything that occurs in the world naturally is from some sort of chemical reaction.  The changing of leaves, blooming of flowers, even the making of the Colorado River thru the Grand Canyon is from a chemical reaction of erosion.

Chemistry is aiding in the improvement of healthcare, the conservation of natural resources, and the protection of the environment. Chemistry is the central science, central to the understanding of other sciences and technology.  Chemistry can help our industry to produce more materials for us such as paints , plastics , iron or steel , cement , kerosine , and also motor oil. Chemistry helps also our farmers to enrich the soil with chemicals like insecticides and pesticides to gain fresh fruits and vegetables.

Society depends on accuracy and precision in many places.   One example is at the gas pumps.   The pumps can be accurate in showing that gas is flowing, but this is not a precise measurement of how much is pumped.   The pumps must not only know how much is pumped, but also be very precise to ensure the right amount is charged.   Small variances in precision can cost the company or customers large sums of money if the pump not measuring correctly.
Another example can occur if someone is using a navigation system.   The system may precisely track a vehicle’s movements, but its accuracy may be off.   It could show the vehicle ten miles from its actual position.   This could cause the driver to go the wrong way down a one-way street, drive where there is no road, or fall off a cliff.
The military depends on accuracy and precision during war.   If a bomber is targeting an area with many civilians close by, both accuracy and precision are important to avoid collateral damage.   However, if the target is the only thing in the area, large bombs may be used to destroy an area.

The precision and accuracy of scientific measurements have some degree of error, but the more times trials are run, errors will most likely average itself out.  The closer it is, the more accurate the measurement is. Precision on the other hand tells about the ability of the measurement system to produce the same result under a given set of conditions when it is subjected to repeated trials.

 

 

References

http://www.edurite.com

http://mrwhat.is.com

 

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Dark matter does not absorb or emit light. So far, astronomers have inferred its presence only indirectly by measuring the effects of its gravity.

Dark matter does not absorb or emit light. So far, astronomers have inferred its presence only indirectly by measuring the effects of its gravity.

But now, by observing a massive collision between two large clusters of galaxies, astronomers have detected what they say could only be the signature of dark matter.

The scientists used optical and x-ray telescopes to measure the location of mass in the collided formation, known as the “bullet cluster” because of its shape.

More than 90 percent of the visible mass in a galaxy cluster is hot gas. The rest is stars located within individual galaxies.

But most of the mass—and thus matter—is located within the galaxies, or the blue areas, scientists say.

In other words, the bulk of visible matter in the clusters has been separated from the majority of mass—which therefore must be dark matter.

“This proves in a simple and direct way that dark matter exists,”

Scientists calculate that dark matter makes up about 25 percent of the universe.

 

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The method of policing Sir Robert Peel used to establish the London Metropolitan Police Department was governed by strict standards of conduct and discipline. Peel has been credited as the “father” of modern policing. He introduced three basic elements that have become the basis for modern policing: mission, strategy, and organizational structure. The philosophy that Peel introduced to London has since been adopted by police all across the United States and can be found in many police agencies mission statements.

 

 

 

 

Sir Robert Peel Review

Navneet Rodriguez

CJA/214

October 11, 2010

Reynaldo Cuellar

 

Sir Robert Peel Review

The method of policing Sir Robert Peel used to establish the London Metropolitan Police Department was governed by strict standards of conduct and discipline. Peel has been credited as the “father” of modern policing. He introduced three basic elements that have become the basis for modern policing: mission, strategy, and organizational structure.  The philosophy that Peel introduced to London has since been adopted by police all across the United States and can be found in many police agencies mission statements.

The mission of the new police was crime prevention. Officers maintained a visible presence in the community by patrolling a fixed beat. Peel’s idea of having organizational structure was borrowed from the military, including uniforms, rank designations and the command and discipline authoritarian system. The government’s primary responsibility was to maintain public safety. American policing is greatly adopted from the English Heritage. Tradition of limited police authority, maintain local control, and decentralized police system are a few of the contributions.

The old system of law enforcement was greatly impacted from urbanization, industrialization, and immigration which eventually led to its brake down. In a study done of the London police and New York City it was argued that London’s citizen had a great deal of mutual respect with the police. By maintaining civil conduct the police overcame any initial public hostility. Police maintained high standards and had strict supervision. During the same time United States had lacked the supervision and allowed for police to exercise harsh physical force in order to maintain order, the United States had lacked the professionalism that the London police had.

Peel’s philosophy for policing was broken down into nine principles. The basic mission for whom the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. Police must secure the wiling cooperation of the public in voluntary observation of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public .The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial services to the law. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient. police at all times should maintain relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police the police being only members of the public who are paid to give fulltime attention to duties which are incumbent upon every citizen in the interest of community welfare and
existence . Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary .The test of the police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

Over 175 years after Peel’s implementing his philosophy, they still are the basis to American modern policing. These same ideas are at the heart of American law agencies mission statements today.

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Gale. (2004) Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 12. 2nd ed. Detroit

 

Heath, B. (2008) Origins and Development of Law Enforcement. Pearson Education

 

Williams, K. (2003) The Police Journal. (n/d)

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Sentencing and Punishment: Philosophies, Recommendations, and Affects

 

 

 

 

 

Sentencing and Punishment: Philosophies, Recommendations, and Affects

Tosha Stewart, Alicia Fink, Bernessa Perry, Navneet Rodriguez

CJA/204

December 13, 2010

Richard S Stolker


Sentencing and Punishment: Philosophies, Recommendations, and Affects

Sentencing and punishment is the way that civilization has dealt with individuals who think that the laws do not imply to him or her for many centuries. “The contemporary American correctional system—which includes probation, parole, jails, prisons, capital punishment, and a variety of innovative alternatives to traditional sentences—is tasked with far more than merely carrying out sentences” (Schmalleger, 2009). Today society categorizes, examines, and reexamines the way it punishes and how the punishment is working. Five main sentencing philosophies are used: deterrence (threat of punishment), incapacitation (prevention), rehabilitation (intervention and treatment), restoration (repaying the victim), and retribution (justifiable punishment). When examining these philosophies individuals have provided recommendations to the sentencing policies and procedures to help fix the problems that are encountered. These suggestions include addressing sentencing policies, incarceration alternatives and additional treatment options, changing the mandatory minimum while restoring discretion, examining supervision policies and how revocations contribute to admissions, policies that can reduce incarceration time, allowing probation officers to adjust terms of supervision, and creating more constructive outcomes. Some conventional and unconventional treatment options are in place to help correct the effects of sentencing on an offender and to help reduce the chances of the offender becoming a repeat offender. The conventional and unconventional treatment options include the following: anger management classes, drug treatment and rehabilitation, meditation, arts programs, and job placement programs. In this paper we will be look at these three parts of sentencing and punishment: sentencing philosophies, sentencing recommendations, and sentencing effects.

Sentencing Philosophies

Sentencing philosophies are goals used in sentencing an offender for the crime that he or she has been convicted of. Five main philosophies are used: deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, restoration, and retribution (Doris, 2001).

Deterrence uses the threat of punishment as a means to prevent individuals from committing crimes. The idea is that if a criminal knows the punishment then he or she will think twice before acting for fear of the punishment. There are two kinds of deterrence: specific and general deterrence. General deterrence occurs when an example is made of someone who commits a crime, so a person who is given the death penalty would be a general deterrence to others thinking of committing the same crime. Specific deterrence is aimed at a specific person. The goal of using this method is to have the offender understand the consequences of making decisions (Doris, 2001). Whereas deterrence is effective for some criminals, it is not effective for all. An example of not being effective is during a crime of passion. A reasonable person could get caught up in the moment and not think about the consequences of his or her actions during a time like that.

Criminal incapacitation occurs when the offender is prevented from being able to prevent any future crimes by keeping him or her detained. The idea is that as long as the offender is behind bars then he or she cannot commit any crimes (Theories of Punishment, 2010). While this does work, it is a very costly approach to crime and is therefore reserved for the serious offenses such as murder.

Rehabilitation occurs when the system tries to prevent crime by intervention. Programs are designed to help offenders get his or her life back in order and learn to make better choices. This sentencing philosophy is more likely to be successful for nonviolent offenders and first time offenders (Theories of Punishment, 2010).

Restoration, also referred to as restorative justice principles, occurs when the victim is given compensation for the damages that were done because of the crime committed. After a crime has been committed toward a person, that person can suffer more than monetary damages. The damages can be emotionally or physically and restoration will attempt to repay for those damages. Restorative justice uses guiding principles. These principles are crime is on offense against human relationships, victims and the community are central to justice processes, the first priority of justice processes is to assist victims, the second priority is to restore the community (to the degree possible), the offender has personal responsibility to victims and the community for crimes committed, stakeholders share responsibilities for restorative justice through partnerships for actions, the offender will develop improved competency and understanding as a result of the restorative justice experience (Theories of Punishment, 2010).

Retribution is the theory that the punishment should fit the crime. The just deserts theory, which says that an offender should have a punishment that fits the crime will fall into the retribution category. The phrase “an eye for an eye” is also part of the retribution theory. This is one of the most practiced theories of punishment and the one that most are familiar with (Theories of Punishment, 2010).

 

Sentencing Recommendations

The last four decades have borne witness to a historic expansion in the use of incarceration as a method of combating crime. While incarceration was originally conceived of as an alternative to corporal punishment, and used in the absence of other, less intrusive measures to force compliance with community norms, the last 40 years have seen nothing less than an anatomical shift. The United States’ rate of incarceration continues to be the highest in the world. Concerns with large prison populations should address sentencing policies such as mandatory minimums and parole mechanisms when examining the practices contributing to the prison populations. Sentencing reforms are only a part of a broader effort that should involve alternatives to incarceration and expanding treatment options.

Mandatory minimums do not reduce crime but result in lengthy prison terms contributing to prison overcrowding. Mandatory sentencing policies impose a “one size fits all” sentencing structure that fails to account for the individual circumstances of the offender and the offense. As a result, they too frequently produce sentencing outcomes that are considered excessive by a reasonable measure. Mandatory sentencing have too often produced miscarriages of justice. Reforms repealing mandatory minimum provisions and restoring judicial discretion can both control prison growth and enhance the fairness of state criminal justice systems.

More than five million people are on probation or parole in the United States. Examine community supervision policies and how probation and parole revocations contribute to prison admissions is an important step in controlling overcrowding. Good time and earned time policies can reduce a person’s prison sentence following the successful completion of rehabilitative programs such as vocational education or substance abuse treatment.  Adopting measures that reduce prison sentences can alleviate overcrowding, and still maintain public safety.

Establishing intermediate sanctions that permit probation officers to amend the terms of supervision, in some cases increasing supervision to address persons who appear to be at high risk of re-offending, rather than resorting to a revocation to custody is one reform idea that should be explored. Incentives such as performance-based grants to agencies that reduce probation and parole failures by at least 10% should be implemented.

Whether intended or not, mandatory sentencing policies in the United States have produced distorted sentencing outcomes while failing to contribute to public safety. These policies have been a major contributor in the crisis of over-incarceration in the United States, one that is currently causing cutbacks in vital state services as a result of the high cost of prison spending. It is long past time to restore a better balance of the use of discretion within the criminal justice system as a means of producing more constructive sentencing and corrections outcomes.

Sentencing Affects

The various types of punishment such as incarceration and parole have an effect on criminal offenders. A person on parole has limitations on his or her livelihood but is still able to function in society. He or she has once been incarcerated but have been granted an early release from the individual’s original sentencing. The person can be subject to periodic drug and alcohol testing, unannounced visits from parole officers, revocation of driving license, and community work. Any violation of the provisions set forth will result in returning to jail.  When a person is incarcerated, he or she is kept away from society. The person is confined to walls.  Many cannot cope with incarceration. This is a totally different lifestyle. The person is housed with all walks of life. The confinement of being behind bars and not being able to see family and friends, controlled by another, and living with a schedule can cause mental anguish, bitterness, and hostility.  As an adult he or she is accustomed to taking control of his or her own life. When incarcerated the individual’s life is controlled by the corrections system.

There could be several programs put into place to help an inmate prepare for being released back into society and prevent recidivism. Anger management classes would help with an inmate who is often angry. It would teach him or her how to deal with anger in a positive way. Drug treatment and Rehabilitation could be used for the drug users. This program could detoxify a drug user but also help the offender realize the effect drugs have on him or her and others. Help the offender to learn the alternative to using drugs. Meditation could be used between the victims and accused. This would give the family closure but also allow the accuser to know how the family feels. It could help the accuser to see what the effect of his or her actions are so that he or she may not do it again. Arts program would help with communication. This would help the individual be creative at the same time being expressive in a positive way. Job placement program would be very beneficial to an inmate. An inmate that has been incarcerated for a long time has no idea of the work field or ethics. They would have to be trained all over and start from the bottom. The program would teach them all the fundamentals of job search and job employment. It would teach them how not to be discouraged with employment but to continue searching. This program would help them to be more productive in society.

 

 

Conclusion

In this paper we have examined three main subjects: sentencing philosophies, sentencing recommendations, and sentencing effects. Sentencing philosophies are put into five main categories. The first is deterrence, which refers to the threat of the punishment. The second is incapacitation or prevention of the offender committing the crime. The third is rehabilitation of the offender which is often achieved by intervention and treatment. The fourth is restoration, which occurs when the offender is required to repay the victim of his or her crime for the damages that have been done. The fifth is retribution. This philosophy examines the justifiable punishment for each crime committed. When examining these five philosophies many people review the punishments handed out every day and try to figure out a way to iron out the kinks. A few recommendations to help with this have been to look over sentencing policies, such as address sentencing policies, finding alternatives to incarceration and expanding treatment options, repealing mandatory minimum provisions and restoring judicial discretion examining community supervision policies and how probation and parole revocations contribute to prison admissions, allowing good time and earned time policies that can reduce a person’s prison sentence, establishing intermediate sanctions that permit probation officers to amend the terms of supervision, and producing more constructive sentencing and corrections outcomes. The effects of these punishments greatly affect a person’s life. Some treatment options are in place to help correct these effects and reduce the chances of the offender becoming a repeat offender. The conventional and unconventional treatment options we have discussed include the following: anger management classes, drug treatment and rehabilitation, meditation, arts programs, and job placement programs. All of these programs are in place to help with the corrections process of the criminal justice system. The sentencing philosophies, sentencing recommendations, and sentencing effects are part of our current justice system as we strive to create a better world for everyone to live in.

 

References

Doris, M. (2001, July). Sentencing and Corrections in the 21st Century. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf

Mauer, M. (2009, October). The Impact of Mandatory Sentencing Policies in the United States. Testimony of Marc Mauer, 5.

Mauer, M. (2010, July-August). Viewpoint. The Impact of Mandatory Minimum Penalties in Federal Sentencing, 94(1), 4.

Porter, N. D. (2010). The State of Sentencing 2009. Developments in Policy and Practice, 22.

Restorative Justice. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/courts/restorative-justice/welcome.htm

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today. An Introductory Text for the 21st Century, Tenth Edition. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx?assetMetaId=b87ffdfd-b6b4-43d4-ab90-47bcfd39fd36&assetDataId=ad8e374d-e5a0-48e2-b3cf-4b2c66f526cf&assetpdfdataid=86e9c696-072d-46b6-9a25-23bc8bdb929d

Theories of Punishment. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Theories-of-Punishment.topicArticleId-10065,articleId-10039.html

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The civil service system is a government agency that controls some of the personnel decisions that are made. The civil service agency has the responsibility for developing job descriptions, announcing job openings, making tests for each position, coming up with the minimum standards required for the position, conducting some tests, and putting a list of people together to be hired or promoted.

 

 

 

 

 

Policing Organizations Q&A Response

Patricia Richmond, Navneet Rodriguez, Jennifer Kearney

CJA/214

October 25, 2010

Reynaldo Cuellar


Policing Organizations Q&A Response

The civil service system is a government agency that controls some of the personnel decisions that are made. The civil service agency has the responsibility for developing job descriptions, announcing job openings, making tests for each position, coming up with the minimum standards required for the position, conducting some tests, and putting a list of people together to be hired or promoted.

Police officers have great job security due to civil service rules which makes it extremely difficult to fire any officers. An officer can be dismissed during the probationary period with no real reason or cause but after the probationary period it would have to go by the rules created by the civil service. Assignments in police departments are governed by the civil service procedures that embody the principle of seniority. Officers with more experience get priority in requesting assignments.

A beat is the territory and time that a police officer patrols. The officer patrols a neighborhood around a certain time each day. The officer may patrol a neighborhood different each day it all depends on when the officer knows when the activity is in each neighborhood.

A beat compares to a post because each day someone is responsible for patrolling or watching out for suspected situations to occur. Watching for the safety of one’s territory and making sure everything goes smoothly in ones territory.

We can improve the coverage of beats and posts, within policing systems to improve our community by ensuring an officer is at his or her post every time. To insure the safety of the neighborhood during a high period of crime and making sure there is no lapse in the patrolling. Communication is essential between citizens and officers, especially  in high crime areas. Communication is the best solution to improve the policing systems, without communication the area’s where the crime rate is highest maybe jeopardized.

           
References

Grant, H. B., & Terry, K. J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River,NJ: Prentice Hall.

Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2008). The Police in America; An Introduction (6th ed.).New York,NY: McGraw-Hill.

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Every profession has Professional organizations that can be joined. Professional Organizations exist solely to make sure its members stay current with the latest technologies and techniques, developing knowledge and abilities and promoting personal growth. The U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the United States have a unique relationship which has impacted our American society as a whole.

 

 

 

 

Policing in American Society Paper

Navneet Rodriguez

CJA/214

October 18, 2010

Reynaldo Cuellar

 

Policing in American Society

Every profession has Professional organizations that can be joined. Professional Organizations exist solely to make sure its members stay current with the latest technologies and techniques, developing knowledge and abilities and promoting personal growth. The U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the United States have a unique relationship which has impacted our American society as a whole.

Modern day police departments are a bureaucratic organization which share similar characteristics of bureaucracy as the U.S. government agencies. The bureaucratic form has proven to be the most efficient means of maintaining organization and supervising various activates in pursuit of a common goal. The American society has changed in many ways over time forcing the government to change along with it to face the new issues which appear. Perhaps the most volatile aspect of American society these days is the rate of technological growth, and the U.S. government has responded to the new technological issues. Whole new branches of government have been created to deal with technological change, such as the Federal Communications Commission, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and NASA and the Federal Department of Transportation. One recent government response to technological change (and a direct result of American society’s passion for wireless technology) is the FCCs ruling that television stations must transmit all-digital signals by June 12, 2009.

Policing organizations have a large impact on America society. Police departments have a degree to which they measure their success which greatly is depended on the size of community, the nature of its problems, and the size of the department. For instance, a smaller sized department with little crime does not need a separate homicide unit. In a larger town where there is a higher serious crime rate it would be necessary for a separate homicide department. For the smaller department it would be cost efficient to send police personnel to state agency training academies.

Police organizations are essential to policing. They are the backbone from which police roles and duties are organized and delivered to the public. Recent changes such as community policing and problem-oriented policing, represent efforts to restoring police organizations by making them more open and responsive to the communities that they serve and to the changing American society.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Kelling, G.L., & Moore, M.H. (1988, November). The Evolving Strategy of Policing. , (4), 16.

 

Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2001). The Police in America (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

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Police operations are extremely demanding activities that challenge policemen by strict load, working memory, and fast rational thinking. Such activities should never be underestimated as human life is in jeopardy every time police operations take place.

 

 

 

 

Police Operations Paper

Navneet Rodriguez

CJA/214

November 8, 2010

Reynaldo Cuellar

 

Police Operations Paper

Police operations are extremely demanding activities that challenge policemen by strict load, working memory, and fast rational thinking. Such activities should never be underestimated as human life is in jeopardy every time police operations take place.

The idea of less than lethal weapons is viewed as an effort to find tools or devices that subdue subjects without harm. Due to a large population of people concerned about the excessive use of firearms used by police, many law enforcement agencies are encouraging and training their officers to use less than lethal force as an alternative to lethal force. Even though less than lethal force is designed for just that, when used incorrectly they can become lethal force. If the beanbag round is used improperly they can penetrate subjects and cause serious bodily injury or even death. That is why the term has changed from non-lethal force to less than lethal force. Any force used incorrectly can cause it to become lethal.

Technology is like a double-edged sword it will continue to create new crimes even as it assists crime fighters. Among the various new technologies being introduced every day the ones that will make the best impression are biometrics to assist in positive identification; non lethal weapons to provide an option to deadly force; digital documentation of everything officers see, say, and do; a virtual cashless society to reduce robbery rates; intelligent vehicles to reduce accidents; and networked clothing and equipment for easier, speedier locating.

Local police need to learn who is in their community and what goes on there, they need to be the neighborhood constable whom everyone respects and shares information with. Local police need to work with their state and federal counterparts, but make sure that local citizens’ concerns are treated fairly.

Better technology, better educated and trained officers and leaders, and better community ties are seen as the significant promises in the future of policing. Increased diversity, awareness, and knowledge, as well as increased information and knowledge sharing and communication are among the contenders of what the future police officer will look like.

Reorganizing what is now The Department of Homeland Security was America’s response to the 9/11 attack. Much of the attack was due to linkage blindness. Which is the sharing of intelligence information between all law enforcement agencies? The sharing of information amongst law enforcement agencies was weak or non-excitant, had we shared all intelligence information known to every level of law enforcement we would have been better prepared for such an attack.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Kelling, G.L., & Moore, M.H. (1988, November). The Evolving Strategy of Policing. , (4), 16.

 

Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2001). The Police in America (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

 

Bowles, Adam Police Trend favors nonlethal force, American News Service (Oct. 26, 2000), Berkshire Publishing group.

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Police discretion is used everyday while policing. Officers either use their own discretion or follow their agencies own discretion. A police officer is to serve and protect the citizens. The police officer also wants to protect the suspect using discretion can either be bad or good. An example is a juvenile who was caught stealing, now should he just put that child in handcuffs or would he call his parents? Not all cases are similar to this case, but an officer will use better judgment to keep everyone safe.

 

 

 

 

 

Personal Side of Policing Q&A Response Paper

Patricia Richmond, Navneet Rodriguez, Jennifer Kearney

CJA/214

November 1, 2010

Reynaldo Cuellar


Personal Side of Policing Q&A Response Paper

Police discretion is used everyday while policing. Officers either use their own discretion or follow their agencies own discretion. A police officer is to serve and protect the citizens. The police officer also wants to protect the suspect using discretion can either be bad or good. An example is a juvenile who was caught stealing, now should he just put that child in handcuffs or would he call his parents? Not all cases are similar to this case, but an officer will use better judgment to keep everyone safe. Police culture is a culture that pertains to police officers and how they go about their policing. They either accept it or let it get to them in ways that would need some counseling. Some officers are not cut out for the job, some work because they need to provide for their families. Stress can affect policing in many ways. An officer is tired and falls asleep in their vehicle and is not paying attention to the man robbing the store. Stress and police officers do not go along together well; they just need to be each others support system and it will eventually work out.

Police discretion is defined as being the judgment that officers use in field, officers judge each situation to make a choice on the use of force and or to make an arrest or simply giving a lecture. The officer has the discretion to judge situations and make a reasonable decision on how to handle each situation, to keep themselves and others safe. The decision comes from training, work experience, and department policies. Factor which affect discretion  are, the seriousness of the offense, the attitude of the suspect, the characteristics of the victim, the relationship of the suspect and the victim, the evidence at hand in regard to the crime and finally and most importantly, the race and gender of the parties of the offense. The seriousness of the crime is the most important factor that police officers take into consideration when deciding whether or not to arrest a suspect. Most officers are more likely to arrest an individual that committed an assault than one who has committed a minor offense like a parking violation.  In regard to the attitude of the suspect, police officers take into consideration how the suspect reacts when being stopped and questioned. The suspect behavior can have a significant effect on the arrest decision if the suspect appears to be aggressive and disrespectful. Police discretion can be improved if the training and recruitment process is improved. The responsibilities and community relationships that the police maintain is another major factor in improving police discretion. A vital element to improving discretion is accountability, law enforcement agencies should be held to account for their actions. Accountability procedures are essential if the police want to achieve their goals of reducing crime and disorder, and enhancing the quality of neighborhood life, and serving community needs. Procedures of internal accountability must be followed and enforced; examples of procedures that are internal to law enforcement agencies include controlling officer’s conduct through written policies, supervision, regular performance evaluations, and taking allegations of misconduct seriously by conducting a complete unbiased investigation.

Police culture is a broken culture. Some police officers have let the fact that they have a badge go to their head. When someone disagrees with an officer they will go to jail. The sad part is the judge and other officers will side with the officer. The criminal justice system will accept the officers false judgment and probable cause. Police culture is something that needs to change and has changed a lot over time. There are several things that cause stress on officers which affect the community. Some things that cause stress on a daily basis for officers are killing someone on duty, losing their partner, and having personal family life disrupted. Due to this stress, officers have high suicide rates and high divorce rates. When officers are stressed or upset about things it can affect the community in different ways. Stress can hurt the community because the officer is not going to be so easy going or easy to deal with. My hypothesis between stressed police officers and situational decisions is the outcome will not be good for either good or bad situations. If an officer is stressed and they are in an easy situation to make a decision, I think a decision will be made quickly which could be the wrong decision. Maybe the situation seemed easy at the time compared to other situations but the officer could be wrong. If there some difficult going on the police officer may use excessive force against the suspect with could end badly.

In conclusion, police officers are a very difficult job. They need to use discretion that will ei ther turn out good or bad. Stress can cause a lot of problems for an officer, that is why it is best to have a support system or talk to the commander and see how they can accomidate. Decions that an officer makes in the field needs to be fast and thought out well, they are not just saving themselves they are saving the public of any harm that could lead into something serious.

 

 

References

Grant, H. B., & Terry, K. J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River,NJ: Perason/Prentice Hall.

Kelling, G. L., & Moore, M. H. (1988, November). The Evolving Strategy of Policing. , 4(16), 1.

Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2008). The Police in America;An Introduction (6th ed.).New York,NY: McGraw-Hill.

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The American system of policing is very unique. There are approximately twenty thousand state and local police agencies in the United States. The majority of police agencies in the United States are only loosely connected to one another. Many have overlapping jurisdictions at multiple levels of government, including local, state, and federal agencies.

Law Enforcement Paper

Navneet Rodriguez

CJA/204

November 29, 2010

Richard S. Stolker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Law Enforcement Paper

Introduction

The American system of policing is very unique. There are approximately twenty thousand state and local police agencies in the United States. The majority of police agencies in the United States are only loosely connected to one another. Many have overlapping jurisdictions at multiple levels of government, including local, state, and federal agencies. The majority are general-purpose agencies with responsibility for patrolling a certain area, responding to calls from citizens, and investigating certain offenses. Others are special-purpose agencies with responsibility for a specific territory (such as a park or an airport) or function (such as enforcing alcoholic beverage laws or wildlife regulations). Some agencies do not fall neatly within these categories. For instance, sheriffs’ agencies in some states do not provide police patrol, but do provide a variety of other related services: running jails, guarding courtrooms, or providing canine service, undercover deputies, or investigative assistance to local police agencies. These variations in the size, type, and function of American police agencies make it difficult to establish an ideal method of organization and management applicable to all agencies.

 

Discussion

Metropolitan areas in the United States are policed by a patchwork of agencies; they have developed locally cooperative networks for delivering public safety across jurisdictional lines. These networks are glued together with an array of formal and informal agreements between agencies. Two techniques used to minimize the fragmentation are contracting services out between law enforcement agencies and forming mutual aid agreements that allow officers from neighboring agencies to render assistance as needed.

Cooperation also occurs among agencies at different levels of government. Many state police and highway patrol agencies provide patrol services on state roads, even when those roads traverse a community with its own police force. State and county agencies also routinely provide investigative assistance to smaller agencies, especially in the case of more serious offenses such as homicide or rape. The formality of these agreements ranges from written legal contracts to verbal agreements. During the 1990s, there also was a proliferation of multijurisdictional task forces to combat offenses such as drug-trafficking. According to one study, many were formed based on the realization that drug sellers did not respect jurisdictional boundaries. Law enforcement agencies serving contiguous jurisdictions therefore needed to coordinate enforcement activities both to share information and resources and to avoid overlapping investigations. These task forces often contain representatives from agencies at the city or town, county, state, and/or federal levels.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.) allows state and local law enforcement agencies to access the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) database and the Automated Fingerprints Identification System (AFIS). It is also common practice for federal law enforcement agencies (such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)) to be called into local and state jurisdictions to collaborate in solving certain offenses, especially those that cross jurisdictional boundaries. While newsworthy cases such as the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing highlight the collaboration between local and federal authorities, more routine collaboration occurs regularly in police agencies around the nation.

Police departments have a degree to which they measure their success which greatly is depended on the size of community, the nature of its problems, and the size of the department. For instance, a smaller sized department with little crime does not need a separate homicide unit. In a larger town where there is a higher serious crime rate it would be necessary for a separate homicide department. For the smaller department it would be cost efficient to send police personnel to state agency training academies.

The modern criminal justice system has evolved since ancient times, with new forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms. These developments have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. In ancient times through the middle Ages, exile was a common form of punishment. During the middle Ages, payment to the victim (or the victim’s family), known as wergild, was another common punishment, including for violent crimes. For those who could not afford to buy their way out of punishment, harsh penalties included various forms of corporal punishment. These included mutilation, branding, and flogging, as well as execution.

Conclusion

Police are primarily concerned with keeping the peace and enforcing criminal law based on their particular mission and jurisdiction. Formed in 1908 the Federal Bureau of Investigation began as an entity which could investigate and enforce specific federal laws as an investigative and law enforcement agency in the United States; this, however, has constituted only a small portion of overall policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with order maintaince and the provision of services.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Heath, B. (2008) Origins and Development of Law Enforcement. Pearson Education

Kelling, G.L., & Moore, M.H. (1988, November). The Evolving Strategy of Policing. , (4), 16.

Williams, K. (2003) The Police Journal. (n/d)

 

 

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The justice system’s major components are the police, courts, and corrections. Together they work systematically to deter crime by apprehending, trying, and punishing offenders. Each component can be described by its functions and purpose. Criminal justice is a process, involving a series of steps beginning with a criminal investigation and ending with the release of a convicted offender from correctional supervision.

Criminal Justice Process and Components

Navneet Rodriguez

CJA/204

November 15, 2010

Richard Stolker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Criminal Justice Process and Components

Introduction

            The justice system’s major components are the police, courts, and corrections. Together they work systematically to deter crime by apprehending, trying, and punishing offenders. Each component can be described by its functions and purpose. Criminal justice is a process, involving a series of steps beginning with a criminal investigation and ending with the release of a convicted offender from correctional supervision.

Discussion

            Crime is defined as conduct in violation of the criminal laws of the state, the federal government, or local jurisdiction for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse.  Agencies across the criminal justice system work together to process and resolve criminal cases. The criminal justice process is a standard sequence of events that begins when a crime is detected.

The first step is the investigation of a crime, by the police. The purpose of a criminal investigation is to gather evidence to identify a suspect and support an arrest. Probable cause is the legal requirement for an arrest. Probable cause means there are facts or apparent facts indicating that evidence of criminality can be found in a specific place or responsible belief that there is a link between a specific person and a particular crime. An arrest involves taking a person into custody for the purpose of holding the suspect until court. The suspect is booked, a process of officially recording an entry into detention after an arrest which identifies the person, place, time, and reason for arrest and arresting authority.

Pretrial activities consist of four major events. Usually within the first 48 hours the suspect makes a first appearance before a judge and is told of the formal charges from arrest and advised of their rights, and if bail is allowed then bail is also set. Under the federal rules of criminal procedure, an indictment is required when prosecuting a capital offense. A prosecutor has the option of an indictment or information, in cases involving crimes punishable by imprisonment. In about half the states and the federal system, a grand jury decides whether to bring charges against a person in a closed hearing in which only the prosecutor presents evidence. The defendant has no right to be present at grand jury proceedings and no right to have a defense attorney represent him or her before the grand jury. The standard for indicting a person for a crime is probable cause. In the remaining states, a prosecutor files a charging document called information. A preliminary hearing is done to establish if there is enough evidence to warrant a trial. The judge seeks to determine if there is probable cause to believe that a crime was committed and the defendant may have committed it. The defendant and there attorney can be present at this hearing to dispute the charges. If the judge finds sufficient evidence exists to continue, then an arraignment is held in the court that holds authority to conduct the trial. Here the accused stands before the judge and hears the formal reading of the information or indictment against them. The defendant is notified of their rights and asked to enter a plea, usually guilty or not guilty. Plea bargaining sometimes might occur between the defense attorney and prosecutors. Usually, in plea bargaining the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for a charge reduction or sentence reduction.

A trial is held before a judge or jury and involves an examination of all evidence. Once all the facts of the case are presented and both the prosecution and defense have rested their cases, the issue of guilt or innocence is determined by the jury or judge whom the case was heard before. The standard of evidence for a criminal conviction is guilt beyond a reasonable doubt-less than 100 percent certainty but more than high probability. If there is doubt based on reason, the accused is entitled to be acquitted.

After the accused has been found guilty the next stage is sentencing. The judge allocates a sentence. Criminal statutes specify the types and amounts of punishment authorized for a given offense, and sometimes even impose a specific sentence or a mandatory minimum sentence. However, courts retain substantial authority to interpret and apply sentencing goals. Possible sentences include a fine, probations, a period of incarceration in a correctional facility, such as a jail or prison, or some combination of supervision in the community and incarceration.

Once the defendant is sentenced the last component corrections can be administered by local, state, or federal authorities. If the sentence is to jail or prison the defendant is classified by local procedures and then assigned to a confinement facility. Some offenders are ordered to prison only to have their sentences suspended and a probationary term imposed. Most inmates are released before the expiration of their maximum sentences. Release may be obtained by serving the maximum sentence mandated by a court or through an early release program, like parole or probation.

Conclusion

All of the components within the criminal justice system are highly interdependent. What each one does depends on what the others do, and a reform or other change in one part of the system can have major repercussions on other parts. Thinking of criminal justice as a system is the idealistic way to appreciate the complex ways in which different parts of the criminal justice system interact with each other.

 

 

 

References

(2010). Cliff notes. Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-10065,articleId-9909.html

(2010). Law Library. Retrieved from http://law.jrank.org/pages/853/Criminal-Justice-System-Structural-theoretical-components-criminal-justice-systems.html

Schmallager, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today (10th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.