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Individual: Technology and Communication Paper
CJA/304 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
May 14, 2012
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The Biometric system is a pattern recognition system, it essentially works by getting biometric data acquired from the person. There are two modes in which the biometric system operates; the verification mode or the identification mode. (Jain, A, K, Fellow, IEEE, Ross, A, Member, IEEE, & Prabhakar, Member, IEEE, (2004)
The verification mode validates the identity of a person by matching captured biometric data with their own biometric templates that are stored within the database system. This system recognizes the person through various forms of identification; personal identification number (PIN), a user name or by a smart card. Identity verification is used for positive recognition, to prevent other people from using the someone else’s identity. (Wayman, J, L, (2001)
The identification mode is a system that recognizes the person by searching templates of all the people within the database; the system does a comparison to establish the true identity of the individual. This system helps in preventing one person from using multiple identities. (Jain, A, K, Fellow, IEEE, Ross, A, Member, IEEE, & Prabhakar, Member, IEEE, (2004)
IAFIS (Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System), This system was brought about on July 28,1999, Before the AFIS there was the ten-print card system which was very time consuming and could take weeks to process a single submission. With the new IAFIS system, it takes about twenty-seven minutes for an electronic fingerprint submission, for an average time of
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response. This system can be called upon twenty-four hours a day, all year long. This is to aid our law enforcement agencies in solving and catching criminals and terrorists
The IAFIS system not only include fingerprints, it also corresponds mug shots, criminal history, aliases, physical characteristics (such as height, weight, eye and hair color), and tattoo pictures.
Within this system are civil fingerprints, members of the military and anyone that is employed by the federal government. All submissions of fingerprints and criminal history is submitted to by the state, local and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily.
The Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System is the biggest biometric database in the world, it has the criminal history and fingerprints of over seventy million subjects, it also holds over thirty-one million civil prints.
The United States and International Law Enforcement Agencies who ally who the U.S., have submitted seven-three thousand prints of known and suspected terrorists.
The Facial Recognition System (FRS)is a computer application identifies and verifies a person automatically through digital imaging and/or a video frame. One way this is done is by
comparing facial features from a pictured image and the facial database.
This system is generally used within security systems and can be matched to other Biometrics
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such as The IAFIS system or the Iris recognition System (eye identification).
There are three techniques to facial recognition; there is the Traditional method facial recognition algorithms identifies faces through landmarks or facial features from the individuals, such as the shape of the persons nose, cheekbones and the size and/or shape of their eyes. These features are used to search for images with the matching features. (Bonsor, K, (2012)
The three-dimensional facial recognition technique uses 3D sensors in order to gather information concerning the shape of an individuals’ face. The information is used to identify the face from a range of viewing angles, it also captures distinctive features of the face, like the contour of the eye sockets, the shape of the nose and the structure of the chin. (Williams, M, (n.d.)
Every ones face has distinctive landmarks that differ from another. FaceIt defines these marks as nodal points. Every person has about eighty nodal points upon their face. The soft ware measured the distance between the eyes, the width of a nose, the length of a persons’ jaw line and the shape of the cheekbones. The nodal points are created into a numerical code, called the face-print.
Three-dimensional facial recognition has one advantage over the other techniques and that is
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that it is not affected by changes in the lighting. The sensors operate by creating a structured light
onto the face. (Greene, L, (2001)
A newer technique that is arising is the Skin Texture Analysis which uses the visual details of the skin that is captured by digital or scanned images. The Skin Texture Analysis creates a mathematical space from the unique patterns, spots and lines that are apparent on a person’s skin.
Ralph Gross, a researcher at Carnegie Mello Robotics Institution states that there is one problem with the facial recognition system; that is that it is fairly good with full frontal and twenty degrees off positioning; it is not effective at the profile position.
There are other conditions in which the facial recognition system is not effective properly; that is in poor lighting or of the person’s face is partially covered such as wearing sunglasses or if they have long hair. If the person is smiling the system can be ineffective.
One of the positive effects technology has had on within the criminal justice system is that the police are more efficient in identifying and capturing criminals. Within the biometric database they are able to store more information and are able to abstract that information a lot faster than they used to.
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One of the negative effects is that some of these techniques have flaws that could lead to
misguiding information, plus, as much as the police use computers to prevent criminal activity, the criminals are using the computers to commit crimes; such as fraud, embezzlement and laundering money.
I feel that no single technique or technologies are any more important than the others, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The Mobile data terminals are great as they allow the officers to transmit information directly with dispatch and other officers, also with the Mobile data terminals they are able to communicate via mobile computer network so that they can receive criminal histories on people that they communicate with and even relay messages between other officers about suspicious activities while on patrol.
The Iris scan is generally used in security that allows certain people admission into secured areas of a building although one problem associated with this devise is that it will admit a person through a picture image of the legit person.
With Live scan it is more convenient because there is no mess from ink and there is little chance of mistakes that could occur doing traditional methods of fingerprinting, such as using too much ink or the person rolling their finger during the process. Also it only takes about seventy-two hours for the officer to receive results with Live scan as the tradition method could take up to
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two months to get the results back.
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Bonsor, K, (2012), “How Facial Recognition Systems Work”, http://computer.howstuffworks.com/facial-reconition.htm. Retrieved from Wikipedia on June 3, 2012
Greene, L, (2001), “Face-scans match few suspects”, (SHTLM), St. Petersburg Times, http://www.sptimes.com/news/021601/TampaBay/Face scans match few .shtml, Retrieved June 3, 2012
Jain, A, K, Fellow, IEEE, Ross, A, Member, IEEE, & Prabhakar, Member, IEEE, (2004), An Introduction to Biometric Recognition, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. 1
Wayman, J, L, (2001), “Fundamentals of biometric authentication technologies”, Int. J. Image Graphics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 93-113
Williams, M, (n.d.), “Better Face-Recognition Software”, http://technologyreview.com/infotech/18796/?a=f. Retrieved from Wikipedia on June 3,