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There are 10 principles of economics. The principles that I feel I would use in order to purchase a larger home to make room for a new child would be marginal changes, trade-offs, and the cost of something is what you give up to get it.. The 10 principles are important to know especially in our economy today. As with most goods there are costs and benefits.

A New House
There are 10 principles of economics. The principles that I feel I would use in order to purchase a larger home to make room for a new child would be marginal changes, trade-offs, and the cost of something is what you give up to get it.. The 10 principles are important to know especially in our economy today. As with most goods there are costs and benefits.
The principle I would consider when purchasing a new home is marginal changes. I would not want to purchase a home that was much more expensive than what I am currently paying. I would like to think of myself as a rational person. I would rather pay a slight difference in order to be closer to services needed, but if the price is much larger I would rather look elsewhere.
With principle 1, trade-offs, I feel that we all use this at one point in order to make decisions. When purchasing a home you must decide whether to look at location before price or vice versa. In this situation you have

a child and their wellbeing at hand. Most likely you would look at location before price because the child is going to be raised in this area. In this economy today there are a lot of trade-offs. We must decide whether to pay extra money on “better quality” of gas or go for the cheaper gas in order to get a fuller tank.
Principle 2, the cost of something is what you give up to get it, is something we must all keep in mind. If you are buying a house you have to decide if the price of the house is worth the benefits. If you buy a house close to a school the cost will likely be higher, but if you buy a house close to a bus stop and farther from the school it may be cheaper. So are you going to give up the convenience of being close to the school in order to have more affordable payments or are you going to give up extra spending money for convenience? As per the example school, college is not cheap, but one must decide if the time and money is worth the end benefits.

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Both orientation and training programs are essential in a well-run organization. While orientation helps to integrate a new employee into an organization & his job, training helps the employee to acquire requisite skills to enhance his performance. An effective employee orientation and training plan should be efficient yet flexible as it forms an integral part of retaining good employees and managing performance. Such programs increases productivity, decreases confusion, and provides satisfaction to both the Supervisor and the employee. The organization should understand the value of a clear and effective orientation and training plan for the long-term profitability of the organization.

Determining Effective Orientation and Training Methods

 

 

Both orientation and training programs are essential in a well-run
organization. While orientation helps to integrate a new employee into an organization & his job, training helps the employee to acquire requisite skills to enhance his performance. An effective employee orientation and training plan should be efficient yet flexible as it forms an integral part of retaining good employees and managing performance. Such programs increases productivity, decreases confusion, and provides satisfaction to both the Supervisor and the employee. The organization should understand the value of a clear and effective orientation and training plan for the long-term profitability of the organization.

Orientation: New employees will often admit to feeling nervous about their new job. Hence due care should be taken to acquaint them with all aspects of their new job and the responsibilities and privileges that go with it. While the Orientation Program is being conducted, they should be given appropriate documents and other relevant material so that they can refer to them later. They should have open communication with their Supervisor who can help to clear any doubts and to give them necessary information about their work and the organization culture. They should be apprised of all benefits and privileges that they are entitled to as well as all rules that govern employee behavior. They should be walked around the office or factory premises and all processes and operations should be pointed out to them. Even those processes and operations where the employee may not be directly involved should also be pointed out so that they get a good overall picture of the organization and are better able to work in teams. All safety measures and policies should be explained and the location of safety equipment should be pointed out. An emergency drill can also be conducted so that they know what to do in case of an emergency.  They should be introduced to all the other existing employees so that they are better able to integrate into the company environment.

Orientation Plan:

  • One person should be in charge of orientating new employees – either the Supervisor himself or any other employee to whom the supervisor may delegate this charge. This ensures consistency.
  • New employees should be familiarized with the company’s broad policies as well as specific goals and objectives.
  • The Supervisor should develop an Employee Handbook of the prevailing rules and regulations of the company, if such a handbook is not already available. This handbook should be given to all new employees. The handbook should cover all personnel policies containing details on hours of work, attendance rules, hierarchical rules, safety rules, terms of leave, sick leave, paid leave, probationary period, disciplinary actions etc. Any prevalent informal rules should also be communicated to him.
  • The new employee should be clearly apprised of the nature of his job and his duties and responsibilities, as also the job expectations that the company has from him.
  • During orientation, two-way communication should be encouraged
  • The new employee should feel free to ask questions and any questions should be answered before he begins work.
  • The employee should be made aware of the privileges that he is entitled to. Medical compensation package, Pension Plans, using the company car & other company equipment, expense account while traveling etc. and any other benefit should be explained to him.
  • The employee’s pay package and perks should be explained in detail. Although the broad outlines are already decided during the hiring process yet the compensation package should be reiterated so that there is no ambiguity. His medical compensation package should also be clearly explained to him since this is a privilege that has assumed much importance nowadays.
  • There should be general introduction all round so that the new employee feels comfortable and welcome to the new environment.

 

Such detailed orientation will help a new employee to adapt well to the prevailing work culture and also to feel comfortable about airing any new innovations and ideas that he may have. Such orientation also greatly facilitates teamwork in teams where new employees are inducted. Since the employee becomes clearly aware of all his perks and privileges hence he is comfortable about all the benefits offered to him. It also increases the productivity of the employee and hence the overall productivity of the organization. The employee is better able to work at his new job with a clear picture of the overall goals and objectives of the company without being limited by the narrow confines of just his own job. Orientation helps him to take his responsibilities beyond just the duties assigned to him and to progress towards achievement of the organization’s objectives.

Training: Training is a very important aspect of the development of employees in an organization. New and existing employees all require thorough and periodic training. Even for existing skillsets of employees, refresher courses are required so that they are at par with the latest advances in technology. Training needs of employees should be carefully assessed before fixing the training programs. All training programs should be visualized and planned keeping the overall strategic goals and objectives of the organization in mind. This will ensure that the training program helps employees to attain skills that are directed towards achieving the overall organizational objectives. Periodic training also helps an employee to gauge his own level of skills and to know whether he needs to seriously upgrade himself. Effective training programs help an employee to better his performance and his productivity. He becomes better equipped to handle the responsibilities of his job.

Training Plan :

  • An effective Training Plan should focus on building highly motivated, effective and efficient employees who will be capable of steering the organization towards its competitive best.
  • Training should focus on the latest advances in technology in which the employees need to gain knowledge and skill for enhancing the company’s profitability.
  • The Training Process should follow a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that are structured with the company’s strategy and objectives in mind.
  • Training needs should be identified by analyzing the long-term strategic plans of the organization, the job characteristics based on detailed job description and the actual needs of the individual employees.
  • Training Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill is desired to be changed through the training program.
  • The Trainers who conduct training should be carefully selected such that they are aware of the knowledge and skills necessary to make a productive employee and are aware of how to communicate with adults and the adult learning process.
  • Prior to training, the skill level of the employee should be determined by interviewing, observing and enquiring of previous employers and references in case of new employees.
  • Trainees should be carefully selected with due consideration to the ability of the employee to learn the material provided and use it effectively and efficiently.
  • Training Methods adopted, whether on-the-job or off-the-job techniques, should be based on the reason for training, type of training and on the type of employee to be trained (new, existing, level of skill etc.).
  • A Training Plan should be developed that focuses on enhancing the employee’s skill-set and helps him to develop new skills necessary for his new job.
  • The Supervisor should prepare the new employee to learn and assimilate the new skills that are to be imparted to him by explaining the importance of the new skill and answering any questions that the employee may have.
  • The training should focus on explaining the material thoroughly and making the tasks clearly understandable to a new employee.
  • Training goals should relate to the mission and strategic plans of the company and the training goals should include milestones that show where the training program aims to take an employee so that he/she reaches where the company wants them to be.
  • The Training Programs should be evaluated periodically through the process of evaluating the employee’s newly acquired skills with the objectives of the training program. If any discrepancies exist, these should be noted and the training program adjusted accordingly.

 

Thus effective training and orientation plans are a must for an organization if it wishes to ensure its long-term productivity and profitability. Such employee-specific activities also help to attract and retain the best talent available in the field. Organizations should recognize and value the importance of orientation and training towards attaining their goals and objectives. Efficient programs should be put in place that makes full use of the latest tools available. Such importance to detail will enhance a company’s economic worth and help it to stay profitable in the long run.

 

 

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Globalization can best be defined as “worldwide integration and development, the act of globalizing or extending to other parts of the world” (Dictionary.com, 2012). Global negotiations are at best, difficult situations due in part to cultural differences, language barriers, and social-economic differences. When large corporations or smaller businesses enter into the global market there are many obstacles and challenges that must be considered and overcome to ensure successful business operations.

 

 

 

 

 

International Negotiation Analysis

Viola Schief

MGT 445

August 28, 2012

James Graham


International Negotiation Analysis

 

Globalization can best be defined as “worldwide integration and development, the act of globalizing or extending to other parts of the world” (Dictionary.com, 2012). Global negotiations are at best, difficult situations due in part to cultural differences, language barriers, and social-economic differences. When large corporations or smaller businesses enter into the global market there are many obstacles and challenges that must be considered and overcome to ensure successful business operations.

Starbucks-Ethiopia Saga

            Starbucks reported that in 2011, the global coffee corporation had earned approximately “$382.1 million, or .50 cents per share, for the quarter that ended January 1, 2012”. The company’s total revenue increased 16 percent to $3.44 billion (The New York Times, 2012). This increase in global revenue for the company has propelled Starbucks into a world leader in the coffee industry. Starbucks first opened for business from a lowly storefront in Seattle’s Pike’s Place Market in 1971. The company through the years has become a global industry leader and a force to be reckoned with throughout the world. Starbucks prides itself on sourcing its coffee products from small farmers and growers worldwide. This type of sourcing has become part of Starbucks philosophy and mission statement.  Starbucks has grown not only nationally but also internationally.

This international expansion caused problems for the coffee giant with the tiny country of Ethiopia. Starbucks Corporation negotiated a fair trade agreement with the Ethiopian government regarding the growing and sourcing of Ethiopian grown coffee.  Starbucks launched a trade agreement with the government to procure the coffee so that Starbucks could sell and hopefully corner the market on Ethiopian Specialty Coffees. The coffee growers were also supposed to receive monies from the C.A.R.E. program that was run by the Starbucks Company. These monies would go “to help fund a three-year program that will improve economic and educational prospects for more than 6,000 people in rural Ethiopia’s coffee growing regions” (Mezlekia, 2010). Sadly the Starbucks Corporation was not holding up its end of the bargaining with the Ethiopian government or the Ethiopian farmers. The famed Ethiopian grown coffees were not properly marketed worldwide as first promised by Starbucks. The government of Ethiopia began to halt shipments to the company. This caused a shortage of coffee supplies to the coffee giant. This caused issues in the company’s fiscal bottom line. In 2007 the dispute between the Ethiopian government and the Starbucks Corporation essentially came to an end. Negotiations between the two yielded an agreement between Starbucks and Ethiopia “to license, distribute and market Ethiopia’s specialty coffees,  to buy its aprons from textile factories in Ethiopia, open a Farmer Support Center in Addis Ababa, and promote the coffee brands in its stores” (The New York Times, 2012).

In the saga of Starbucks and the Ethiopian government, the global industry giant, Starbucks, had to yield to a small, poverty stricken country to procure rights to grow and process specialty coffees.  Information and technology aided with the overall outcome of the negotiations. Ethiopia although not as advanced as the modern corporation, was still able to negotiate a fair trade agreement with the company that garnered a great deal of revenue for the small, impoverished people of Ethiopia.

 

References

Dictionary.com. (2012, August 26). Globalization. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/globalization

Mezlekia, W. (2010, June 1). The saga of the Starbucks-Ethiopia affair. Retrieved from http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2010/05/31/the_saga_of_the_starbucks_ethiopia_affai?blog=15

The New York Times. (2012, January 26). Starbucks Corporation. Retrieved from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/business/companies/starbucks_corporation/index.html

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A decade ago, the characteristic manufacturing companies’ supply chain was domestic, but today, it is just as potentially to be global. More than a decade ago, many supply chains for manufacturers were bound to just a few hundred miles and just a few days of safety stock on hand, but today, many companies cannot afford that kind of lean inventory.

Globalization

            A decade ago, the characteristic manufacturing companies’ supply chain was domestic, but today, it is just as potentially to be global. More than a decade ago, many supply chains for manufacturers were bound to just a few hundred miles and just a few days of safety stock on hand, but today, many companies cannot afford that kind of lean inventory. Today, apt deliveries from global suppliers depend on various diverse factors that manufacturers cannot accurately predict or control. Because of increased levels of inventory and duration products remain in transit, many companies have watched as their global shipping costs rise. Accordingly, companies have started becoming more interested in vendor-managed inventory (VMI), which is a financial and demand planning approach habitually used by most electronic and retailing industries. For instance, by adopting VIM, Apple Inc. can always guarantee the availability of stock and replenish the inventory immediately, hence delivering the predicated level of customer service (Lee & Ren, 2011).

Corporate Responsibility and Ethics

The fundamental point regarding business ethics in the current market system, and how it affects management, is the critical significance of a social environment devoted to ethical action for today’s market system. Over the past decade, the world has forcefully come to reality about Corporate Responsibility and Ethics, particularly concerning various political and economic facts. First, markets are engrafted in law, while that law is engrafted in social organizations and social standards; second, effective markets cannot be and operate minus much of social infrastructure, and; third, markets are exceedingly higher than systems of administrated apportionment of labor, capital, and goods and services. Relevantly, ASOS global supply chain implemented the Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI) Base Code in July 2008 (ASOS, 2008). In the past 10 years, many companies have been adopting the ETI, which is an innovational confederation of companies, voluntary organizations, and trade unions that work jointly to better people’s working lives across the world—the people that manufacture or farm consumer goods.

 

References

ASOS. (2008, July 31). Corporate Social Responsibility at ASOS: Ethical Sourcing. ASOS.com. Retrieved April 28, 2012, from http://www.asos.com/infopages/asos-corporate-social-responsbility.aspx

Lee, J., & Ren, L. (2011). Vendor-Managed Inventory in a Global Environment with Exchange Rate Uncertainty. International Journal of Production Economics, 130(2), 169-174.

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It is said by Bobby McLe and I would like to quote “When the earth is sick and polluted, human health is impossible…. To heal ourselves we must heal our planet, and to heal our planet we must heal ourselves.” (Unquote) It is so true that first we have to address the problems within ourselves to solve the global issue of pollution that is caused by different actions by us. Starting with the general overview of the environmental pollution issue that is making the world hard to live and gradually changing into a barren place with no fresh air and water to support the life, let’s move to see few basic reasons for it.

 

Description of environmental pollution issue

It is said by Bobby McLe and I would like to quote “When the earth is sick and polluted, human health is impossible…. To heal ourselves we must heal our planet, and to heal our planet we must heal ourselves.” (Unquote) It is so true that first we have to address the problems within ourselves to solve the global issue of pollution that is caused by different actions by us. Starting with the general overview of the environmental pollution issue that is making the world hard to live and gradually changing into a barren place with no fresh air and water to support the life, let’s move to see few basic reasons for it.

Global Environmental Pollution Issue

–      Global increase in temperature

–      Weakening of ozone layer

–      Deforestation

–      Water pollution

–      Waste dumping

 

 

Global increase in temperature: Greenhouse gases support to keep the earth’s heat at a level appropriate to maintain life. Human doings aggregate the quantity of greenhouse gases in the air, which is the basis for additional heat to be confined. Foreseen outcomes include: Advanced sea levels Greater temperatures Inconstant climatic circumstances. They all can result in adverse effect on cultivation and ecosystems.

Weakening of Ozone Layer: As it is known that this layer keeps the Earth safe from dangerous infrared rays. With the use of diluents and lining, it is weakening the ozone layer. Adverse effects may include: Aggregate diffusion of IR rays to earth, More dangers of skin tumour and eye illnesses etc.

Deforestation: The deforestation of humid forests is a chief global problem. As it is resulting in increased barren places. Other adverse effects include: Damage to living for native inhabitants Inconstant environmental circumstances (vulnerability to overflow, worse droughts, soil destruction etc.)

Water Pollution: A variation in water excellence that influences on living creatures Kinds and special effects of water pollution comprise: Infective agents, such as typhoid, cholera Nutrients and eutrophication Poisonous ingredients, from side to side withdrawal Carbon-based substances Residues can disturb aquatic systems

Waste Dumping: Waste dumping approaches include: Exposed removal and landfill Sea removal Transferring waste Waste to vital plants Lessen the waste watercourse. Composing Leftover to energy Dangerous waste removal necessities to be carefully handled and liable to diminish pressures to the atmosphere and social health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Special effects on Economy

 

Erosion

Air Contamination

Terrestrial Degradation

Loss to construction materials

Effects on Glasses & Porcelains

Greater than before Transportation Expenses through Pollution

 

Erosion : Air contamination harms constituents primarily by rust of metals. The major air contaminant accountable for metal erosion is SO2. In the existence of oxygen & humidity , its changes in H2SO4

Air Contamination: Air contamination is a main ecological apprehension in Asian towns. Infections linked to air contamination destroy more than half a billion individuals in the state every year.  Numerous countries have applied new release standards meant for dropping atmospheric deferred substance, chiefly in the automobile division

Terrestrial Degradation: Numerous Asian countries, mainly India, Afghanistan, Mongolia and China are fronting the encounters of desertification. Desertification in such parts is produced by: Overgrazing Over ploughing Plants elimination. These difficulties remain to strengthen as human and cattle statistics stay to rise.

Loss to construction materials, Glasses & Porcelains: Harm to construction resources, Glasses & Porcelains Responds with lime pebbles, marbles & further constructing resources to ground worsening & flawed the construction supplies. Glasses & porcelains are particularly unaffected to the biochemical action of atmosphere or water, but then again an extensive revelation for ages displayed a modification in their looks.

Greater than before Transportation Expenses through Pollution: It has been observed that transportation costs have been increased with the increase in pollution throughout the world. There is an urgent call for improved roads, better fuel-consumption vehicles etc to make it less adverse for people.

Relation between Economy & Worldwide Pollution Issue:

Global contamination straight effect each human doings and financial divisions such as terrestrial, aquatic ecosystems, investment and assurance, health, nutrition safety, cultivation, water means organization, communication, leisure industry and refreshment happenings. In direction to stop or lessen the hostile values of weather extravagances on socio-economic actions in all nations, great efforts are expected from everyone as an individual as well as in relations to justifiable progress.

 

 

Thus, it is observed that societal, economic and ecological matters are interrelated, and that results must integrate every aspect if it is desirable to make right and effective conclusions in the future for welfare of the next generation.

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Define the following terms: 3G, PDA, WAP, SMS, GPS, and smartphone.

Chapter 10

Mobile Commerce and Pervasive Computing

 

Learning Objectives

 

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. Discuss the characteristics and attributes of m-commerce.
  2. Describe the drivers of m-commerce.
  3. Understand the technologies that support m-commerce.
  4. Describe wireless standards and transmission networks.
  5. Discuss m-commerce applications in finance, advertising, and providing of content.
  6. Describe the applications of m-commerce within organizations.
  7. Understand B2B and supply chain applications of m-commerce.
  8. Describe consumer and personal applications of m-commerce.
  9. Describe some non-Internet m-commerce applications.
  10. Describe location-based commerce.
  11. Discuss the key characteristics and current uses of pervasive computing.
  12. Describe the major inhibitors and barriers of m-commerce.

 

 

Content

 

NextBus: A Superb Customer Service

10.1     Mobile Commerce: Overview, Benefits, and Drivers

10.2     Mobile Computing Infrastructure

10.3     Mobile Financial Applications

10.4     Mobile Shopping, Advertising, and Content-Providing

10.5     Mobile Intrabusiness and Enterprise Applications

10.6     Mobile B2B and Supply Chain Applications

10.7          Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications

10.8     Location-Based Commerce

10.9          Pervasive Computing

10.10   Inhibitors and Barriers of M-Commerce

Managerial Issues

Real-World Case: Hertz Goes Wireless

 

 

Answers to Pause/Break Section Review Questions

 

Section 10.1 Review Questions

 

1.         Define m-commerce.

 

Mobile commerce is any electronic commerce done in a wireless environment, especially via the Internet.

 

2.         Define the following terms: 3G, PDA, WAP, SMS, GPS, and smartphone.

 

3G – the third generation of digital wireless technology: supports rich media such as video clips

PDA – personal digital assistants: a handheld wireless computer

WAP – wireless application protocol: and technology that offers Internet browsing from wireless devices

SMS – short message service: a technology that allows for the sending of short text messages on certain cell phones

GPS – global positioning system: a satellite based tracking system that enables the determination of a devices location

Smartphone – Internet-enabled cell phone with attached applications

 

3.         List the value-added attributes of m-commerce.

 

The value-added attributes of m-commerce include ubiquity, convenience, instant connectivity, personalization, and localization of products and services.

 

4.         List at least five major drivers of m-commerce.

 

Drivers of mobile commerce include widespread availability of devices, no need for PC, the handset culture, vendors’ push, declining prices, improvement of bandwidth, and the explosion of EC in general.

 

5.         Briefly describe the key elements of the m-commerce value chain.

 

See Exhibit 10.4.

 

 

Section 10.2 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe the major hardware devices used for mobile computing.

 

Some of the major hardware devices include cellular telephones, PDAs, interactive pagers, screen phones, e-mail handhelds, and other devices.

 

2.         List the major software items used for mobile computing.

 

Some of the major software applications include microbrowsers, mobile client operating systems, Bluetooth, mobile application user interfaces, back-end legacy applications software, application middleware, and wireless middleware.

 

3.         Describe the major components of a mobile network.

 

The major components of a mobile network are the mobile station, the base station controller, the mobile switching station and the fixed telephone infrastructure.

 

4.         Define the terms FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.

 

FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access –  Used by 1G systems, this protocol gives each user a different frequency to communication on.

TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access – Used with some of the more popular 2G systems, this protocol assigns different users different time slots on a given communications channel (e.g., every 1/8 time slot).

CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access – Used with most 3G systems, this protocol separates different users by assigning different codes to the segments of each user’s communications.

 

5.         List the major standards used by mobile phone systems (e.g., GSM).

 

These are seen in Exhibit 10.6 and include GSM, GPRS, EDGE, PDC, W-CDMA, 3GSM, Camano, CDMA2000 1X, and CDMA2000 1XEV.

 

6.         Describe the major components of a WLAN.

 

The major components are the device with wireless communications and the WAP.

 

7.         List some of the key security issues in an m-commerce transaction.

Viruses are an issue for mobile commerce just as they are for traditional electronic commerce.

 

8.         Describe the security issues and key solutions in m-commerce.

 

Solutions used in traditional IP networks can be applied to mobile commerce with effectiveness.

 

9.         Describe IVR.

 

Interactive voice response is a computer voice system that enables users to request and receive information and enter and change data through regular telephone lines or through 1G cell phones.

 

10.       List some of the uses of voice portals.

 

A voice portal is a Web site with audio interfaces, accessed by making a phone call.  These can be used to automate navigation within IT and Web systems.

 

 

Section 10.3 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe some of the services provided by mobile banking.

 

Several mobile and financial applications exist and work in similar ways to online financial applications.

 

2.         Discuss mobile micropayments.

 

Micropayments can be made through cell phone calls that debit money from accounts or through smartcard-like features involving proximity or short range transmissions.

 

3.         Describe the m-wallet and wireless bill payments.

 

The mobile wallet is a wireless wallet that enables cardholders to make purchases with a single click from their wireless devices.  Wireless bill payments use mobile commerce interfaces to pay bills through mobile networks.

 

 

Section 10.4 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe how mobile devices can be used to shop.

 

Mobile devices can be used to make payments through calls to specific accounts or through proximity or short-range transmissions.

 

2.         Explain targeted advertising in the wireless environment.

 

Based on GPS information, merchants could advertise to specific mobile users based on their physical locations (i.e. close to a store).

 

3.         Describe mobile portals and what kind of information they provide.

 

A mobile portal is a customer interaction channel that aggregates content and services for mobile users.

 

 

Section 10.5 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe wireless job dispatch.

 

A mobile employee can be given information about their next activity without returning to the home office.  This information can be transmitted through a wireless device.

 

2.         Discuss how wireless applications can be used to provide customer support.

 

Wireless applications can provide support by supporting personnel in the field who are working with the customer, as well as providing the customers access to systems such as a CRM system.

 

3.         List some of the major intrabusiness wireless applications.

 

Examples are listed on pages 402-404.

 

 

Section 10.6 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe wireless support along the supply chain.

 

Wireless devices can provide a variety of information to users at different points in the supply chain, providing them with better, more up-to-date information to make the supply chain function more efficiently.

 

2.         How can telemetry improve supply chain operations?

 

Telemetry can help businesses indemnify the location of goods and employees to make more efficient decisions by adding products/employees location to the decision process.

 

 

Section 10.7 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe the application of wireless and mobile technologies to games and entertainment.

 

Wireless can be used extensively in games an entertainment to make them move mobile and interactive.

 

2.         Discuss some of the potential applications of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies in hotels.

 

The ability to access hotel services and the Internet using wireless devices are potential applications.

 

3.         Describe some potential uses of mobile and wireless technologies in providing

medical care.

 

Wireless telemedicine is the use of mobile telecommunications infrastructures and multimedia technologies to provide medical information and deliver health-care services remotely.

 

 

Section 10.8 Review Questions

 

1.         Describe some of the potential uses of l-commerce.

 

Location-based commerce is electronic commerce applications provided to customers based on a user’s specific location.  It can be used to target advertising or services to a user based on location.

 

2.         Discuss the technologies used in providing l-commerce services.

 

L-commerce uses m-commerce tools in addition to GPS/GIS.

 

3.         Describe GPS and GIS.

 

A global positioning system is a wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on the earth.  GPS is integrated with GIS to provide users with information about their locations relative to maps and other directional information.

 

4.         Discuss telematics.

 

The telematics is the integration of computers and wireless communication to improve information flow using the principles of telemetry.

 

5.         List some of the barriers to l-commerce.

 

Barriers to l-commerce include technical and nontechnical limitations. The technical limitations include lack of the standardized security protocol, insufficient bandwidth, 3G licenses, transmission and power consumption limitations, and WAP limitations.  The nontechnical limitations center around public adoption and acceptance.

 

 

Section 10.9 Review Questions

 

1.         Define pervasive computing.

 

Pervasive computing is invisible, everywhere computing that is embedded in the objects around us.

 

2.         List some of the major properties of pervasive computing.

 

These properties include: invisible devices; embedded microchips; always on; ubiquitous networks; life-enhancing applications; consumer-centric solutions; increased productivity; and long-term vision.

 

3.         Discuss some of the ways that pervasive computing can be used in the home.

 

It can be used with lighting, energy management, water control, home security and communications, and home theater.

 

4.         Describe the OnStar system.

 

This is a cellular and location system that connects to a 24-hour help center.

 

5.         Describe some of the ways that microprocessors are being used to enhance the

intelligence of appliances.

 

They can be used to monitor and control the device, diagnose problems, improve performance, coordinate devices, and profile use.

 

6.         Discuss the key elements of Auto-ID.

 

A system that hopes to create an “Internet of Things” so that individual items could be tracked.

 

 

Section 10.11 Review Questions

 

1.         Discuss the role that usability plays in the adoption of m-commerce.

 

Because of their mobile nature, current mobile devices generally have small screen sizes and may be difficult to use because of this.  Since ease-of-use is driving many IT advancements, mobile commerce must be similarly easy to use.

 

2.         List the technical limitations of m-commerce.

 

The technical limitations include lack of the standardized security protocol, insufficient bandwidth, 3G licenses, transmission and power consumption limitations, and WAP limitations. 

 

3.         Describe the potential health hazards of mobile devices.

 

Some believe that exposure to electronic emissions from wireless devices may have health ramifications including cancer.

 

Answers to EC Application Case Questions

 

EC Application Case 10.1: U.S. Fleet Services and Wireless Networking

 

1.       What systems did U.S. Fleet have to put in place before implementing its wireless solution?

 

The firm had to deploy a full ERP system.

 

2.       Why did U.S. Fleet select the Intermec 710 handheld device?  How does the device communicate with the company’s intranet?

 

The device had a bar code scanner, runs Microsoft’s Pocket PC OS, runs VB applications, uses CompactFlash cards, can do short range Wi-Fi communications and is rugged. It connects to the intranet through Wi-Fi.

 

3.       What are the major benefits that U.S. Fleet has realized by combining handheld devices with Wi-Fi?

 

It allows them to more easily communicate with people in the field, saving time and reducing errors.

 

 

EC Application Case 10.2: Empowering Assisted-Living Patients

 

1.       What are some of the pervasive devices used in the Elite Care facility?  What types of data do these devices provide?

 

Some examples include: weight monitors, location monitors, panic buttons, Internet access, and climate controls.

 

2.       In what ways do these devices encroach upon the privacy of the residents?

 

These systems provide a large amount of data to the administrators about a resident’s routine and location.

 

 

Answers to Discussion Questions

 

  1. 1.      Discuss how m-commerce can solve some of the problems of the digital divide (the gap within a country or between countries with respect to people’s ability to access the Internet). (See the 1999 report “Challenges to the Network” at itu.int.)

 

Mobile commerce can potentially provide Internet access to those in the “digital divide” by providing access through more common and less expensive devices such as cell phones and personal digital assistants.  Additionally, mobile networks do not rely on the same infrastructure required for wired networks.

 

  1. 2.      Discuss how m-commerce can expand the reach of EC.

 

Student answers will vary.  Mobile commerce eliminates the barrier of physical location in electronic commerce by allowing individuals to conduct commerce from any location at any time.

 

  1. 3.      Explain the role of protocols in m-commerce.

 

Protocols are used to ensure that various devices from different manufacturers can all speak a common language and use common networks.  Standard protocols are beneficial to mobile commerce because they provide a single communication language that allows the system to reach critical mass quicker.

 

  1. 4.      Discuss the impact of m-commerce on emergency medical services.

 

The mobile 911 system has allowed individuals to use their cell phones to call for emergency response services, and emergency services are able to target the location of each call.

 

  1. 5.      How do smartphones and screenphones differ? What characteristics do they share?

 

Both types of phones support more information than a typical telephone.  But screenphones are designed to present not only audio but also video transmissions.  Smartphones are designed to support Internet-enabled communications with attached applications.

 

  1. 6.      How are GIS and GPS related?

 

GIS displays maps and directions, and GPS displays physical locations.  When GPS and GIS are integrated, users can find where they are and receive directions from a map.

 

  1. 7.      List three to four major advantages of wireless commerce to consumers presented in this chapter and explain what benefits they provide to consumers.

 

New services – mobile commerce can provide customers with a variety of new services such as location-based services that would not be available through traditional electronic commerce.

Mobility – at its core, mobile commerce provides the ability for people to access services in locations and at times that they would not ordinarily able to access the services

Ubiquity – mobile commerce can potentially be implemented in a wide range of devices, making access to applications easier and more common

 

  1. 8.      Location-based tools can help a driver find their car or the closest gas station. However, some people see location-based tools as an invasion of privacy. Discuss the pros and cons of location-based tools.

 

Advantages would include the applications stated in the question, disadvantages will center around privacy issues. Advantages of this type of system would include the ability of systems and companies to assist customers with helpful information based on their specific location and needs.  Disadvantages might include an invasion of privacy and the ability of companies to “spy” on its customers and their actions.

 

  1. 9.      Discuss how wireless devices can help people with disabilities.

 

Wireless devices provide a wide variety of advantages for individuals with disabilities.  Specifically, their ability to work from any location, where a computer may not be practical or possible.  Specific examples would include GPS/GIS integration, and mobile 911 services.

 

  1. 10.  Discuss the benefits of IVR.

 

An interactive voice response system has several advantages including the possibility to eliminate the usability problem with small screens on wireless devices in addition to the ability to use wireless applications with older technology.

 

  1. 11.  Discuss the benefits of telemetry-based systems.

 

Telemetry-based systems can be useful because of their ability to determine the specific location of the user and then provide them with information or directions based on that location.  The applications include directions and automated job dispatch.

 

  1. 12.  Discuss the ways in which Wi-Fi is being used to support m-commerce.  Describe the ways in which Wi-Fi is affecting the use of cellular phones for m-commerce.

 

Student responses will vary.

 

  1. 13.  Which of the applications of pervasive computing–smart cars, homes, appliances, and things–are likely to gain the greatest market acceptance of the next few years?

 

Student responses will vary.

 

  1. 14.  Which of the current m-commerce limitations do you think will be minimized within 5 years? Which ones will not?

 

Student responses will vary.

 

  1. Describe some m-commerce B2B applications along the supply chain.

 

Some examples include one-entry applications, user information applications, and reporting solutions.

 

 

 

Internet Exercises

(Note: URLs may change over time; please check the Internet Exercises on the Turban Web site for possible updates: www.prenhall.com/turban.)

 

  1. 1.      Learn about PDAs by visiting vendors’ sites such as Palm, Handspring, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Phillips, NEC, Hitachi, Compaq, Casio, Brother, Texas Instruments, and others. List the m-commerce devices manufactured by these companies.

 

Student responses will vary.

 

  1. 2.      Access progressive.com, an insurance company, from your cell phone (use the “Go to…” feature). If you have a Sprint PCS wireless phone, do it via the Finance menu. If you have a Palm i705, you can download the Web-clipping application from Progressive. Report on these capabilities.

 

Student responses will vary.

 

  1. 3.      Research the status of 3G and the future of 4G by visiting itu.int, 4g.newstrove.com, and 3gnewsroom.com. Prepare a report on the status of 3G and 4G based on your findings.

 

Student answers will vary based on when the report is made.

 

  1. 4.      Explore nokia.com.  Prepare a summary of the types of mobile services and applications Nokia currently supports and plans to support in the future. 

Student answers will vary based on when the report is made.

 

  1. 5.      Enter kyocera-wireless.com. Take the smart tour and view the demos. What is a smartphone? What are its capabilities? How does it differ from a regular cell phone?

A smartphone is an Internet-enabled cell phone with onboard applications for surfing the Internet, sending e-mail and connecting to other services.

See: http://www.kyocera-wireless.com/kysmart/kysmart_series.htm

 

  1. 6.      Enter www.i3mobile.com.  Run the Pronto demo.  What types of services are provided by Pronto?  What types of users would be more likely to use Pronto rather than a smart phone?

 

This site is currently unavailable.

 

 

  1. 7.      Enter ibm.com.  Search for wireless e-business.  Research the resulting stories to determine the types of wireless capabilities and applications supported by IBM software and hardware. Describe some of the ways these applications have helped specific businesses and industries.

 

Student answers will vary.

 

  1. 8.      Using a search engine, try to determine whether there are any Wi-Fi hotspots in your area. Enter wardriving.com.  Based on information provided at this site, what sorts of equipment and procedures could you use to locate hotspots in your area?

 

Student responses will vary.

 

9.       Enter mapinfo.com and look for the location-based services demos. Try all the demos. Find all of the wireless services. Summarize your findings.

 

Student answers will vary.

 

10.     Visit ordersup.com, astrology.com, and similar sites that capitalize on l-commerce. What features do these sites share?

 

Student answers will vary.  All of these firms have a portion of their services available to mobile audiences.

 

11.     Enter packetvideo.com and microsoft.com/mobile/pocketpc. Examine their demos and products and list their capabilities.

 

Student answers will vary.

 

  1. 12.  Enter internethomealliance.com and review their white papers.  Based on these papers, what are the major appliances that are currently in most U.S. homes? Which of these appliances would most homeowners be likely to connect to a centrally controlled network?

 

Student answers will vary.  Many of these appliances can be networked to home computers providing information about the appliance and the ability to monitor and control its activities.  Additionally many other functions are possible including home security, light and music control, as well as remote control.

 

  1. 13.  Enter onstar.com.  What types of fleet services does OnStar provide?  Are these any different from the services OnStar provides to individual car owners?

 

It appears that the fleet services options offer all of the features available to individuals with management reports available to the firm.

 

  1. 14.  Enter autoidcenter.org.  Read about the Internet of Things.  What is it?  What types of technologies are needed to support it? Why is it important?

 

This is a concept detailed in the text about tracking all products to completely understand a distribution channel.  It would allow complete transparency in distribution.  It would require the use of smart technology (tracking) for all items. Student reports will vary.

 

 

  1. Enter mdsi-advantex.com and review the wireless products for the enterprise. Summarize the advantages of the different products.

 

Student reports will vary.

Team Assignments and Role Playing

 

1.         Each team should examine a major vendor of mobile devices (Nokia, Kyocera, Motorola, Palm, BlackBerry, etc.). Each team will research the capabilities and prices of the devices offered by each company and then make a class presentation, the objective of which is to convince the rest of the class why one should buy that company’s products.

 

Student reports will vary.

 

2.         Each team should explore the commercial applications of m-commerce in one of the following areas: financial services, including banking, stocks, and insurance; marketing and advertising; manufacturing; travel and transportation; human resources management; public services; and health care. Each team will present a report to the class based on their findings. (Start at mobiforum.org.)

 

Student reports will vary.

 

3.         Each team will investigate a global organization involved in m-commerce, such as gmcforum.com and openmobilealliance.com. The teams will investigate the membership and the current projects the organization is working on and then present a report to the class based on their findings.

 

Student reports will vary.

 

4.         Each team will investigate a standards-setting organization and report on its procedures and progress in developing wireless standards. Start with the following: atis.org, etsi.org, and tiaonline.org.

 

Student reports will vary.

 

5.         Each team should take one of the following areas–homes, cars, appliances, or other consumer goods such as clothing–and investigate how embedded microprocessors are currently being used and will be used in the future to support consumer-centric services.  Each team will present a report to the class based on their findings.

 

Student reports will vary.

Answers to End-of-Chapter Real-World Case Questions:  Hertz Goes Wireless

 

1.  Which these applications are intrabusiness in nature?

 

Both quick rental and instant return applications could be considered intrabusiness.  Quick rentals provide a method for customers to rent quickly, with a reduction in paperwork and time–this can be seen as advantage to the company.  The instant return system uses technology to quickly return cars–this can be seen as a benefit to the company because of the reduction in time and costs.

 

2.  Identify any finance- and marketing-oriented applications.

 

The instant return feature is a finance-oriented application because it allows for the quick figuring and billing of customers as they return cars.  All other applications could be considered marketing applications because they provide benefits to the customer that can be used to differentiate this firm from other car rental agencies.  All of these additional features provide benefits to the customer and a way for Hertz to attract and retain customers.

 

3.  What are the benefits to Hertz of knowing exactly were each of its cars is?  As a renter, how would you feel about this capability?

 

Hertz has better control over its assets, namely cars, when it is aware of where they are at all times.  This can stop customers from stealing cars, or otherwise using them in a  way that is against their rental agreement.  It is also a benefit to the company because they can help customers who are lost or are in need of any other type of assistance.  Student answers will vary based on their reaction to the use of this technology.

 

 

 

 

0

What two objects, people, subjects, or concepts are you going to compare and/or contrast?

Associate Program Material

Appendix D

 

Selecting a Topic and Brainstorming Worksheet

 

Complete the following and post as an attachment.

 

What two objects, people, subjects, or concepts are you going to compare and/or contrast? The two subjects that I am going to compare or contrast are, Burger King VS McDonalds.

 

 

 

What are the similarities between the two objects, people, subjects, or concepts? List as many similarities that you can think of.

 

The similarities are, Both have a menu containing burgers, fries, shakes, and soft drinks. Also these restaurants offer a fast food breakfast menu.
What are the differences between the two objects, people, subjects, or concepts? List as many differences that you can think of.

 

The differences between the two are, the way the restaurants cook their burgers. How the fried foods are cooked what flavors of soft drinks they offer. What type of desert and breakfast items is offered? Another difference is the time of day the menu changes from breakfast to lunch.
Are you going to focus on similarities, differences, or both? Explain your rationale.  

I am going to focus on both similarities and differences. The reason I am going to focus on both is, although both restaurants offer similar types of food there are many differences in the two. From the way the food is prepared to the menu options of each one.

 

 

What do you want your readers to learn and understand after reading your essay? What is the purpose of your essay? I want my reader to make an informed choice of one or the other. The purpose of my essay is to inform my audience. I want them to make an informed decision based on the information I have provided.

 

 

 

What 3 parallel points of comparison and/or contrast will you address in your essay? For example, if you were going to compare and contrast two teachers, your parallel points might be teacher’s homework policy, teacher’s classroom conduct policy, and teacher’s demeanor. Cooking methods of the food, menu options, and pricing.
Explain why this is an appropriate and workable topic selection for the final assignment.  

This is an appropriate and workable selection for my final assignment. This is a subject that I know about. I thing it will keep my audience engaged. And I think my readers will walk away more informed.

 

 

 

 

0

Our actual economy, learned from the devastating Great Depression that caused a Stock Market earthquake not only in Our Country; however, globally leaving a significant rate of poverty, Unemployment and lingering sequels of panic and terror.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cause and Effect

Luis Zeledon

American Intercontinental University

English Composition 1

ENGL106-1203B-220

Brian Henson

August 05, 2012

 

Abstract

Our actual economy, learned from the devastating Great Depression that caused a Stock Market earthquake not only in Our Country; however, globally  leaving a significant rate of poverty, Unemployment and  lingering sequels of panic and terror.

 

Body

Cause

The Cause of the Great Depression in 1929-1933 was the inexperience  of managing the prominent economic structure thoughtfully.

 

Unsatisfactory  plannings created  high concerns as well as a  boycott apportionment of the financial means and the  unqualified plan of leading economy  in the  right direction that could  compete worldwide without a consequential fluctuation that put option to families in privation and mutilated derelict the whole Country Economically.

 

 

“The Great Depression of the 1930s and the pronounced Credit Crisis of the 2000s had similar causes but elicited strikingly different policy responses. While it remains too early to assess the effectiveness of contemporary policy, it is possible to analyze  monetary and fiscal responses in the 1930s as a natural experiment or counter factual capable of shedding light on the impact of ongoing policies.”

 

Effects of the Great Depression

It still Lingers the sequels of such depression. In the Actual Economy is known as “Melting Economy” which had increased the percentage of unemployment due to the urgent need of cheap labor and companies moving out of the country.

 

United States does not seek  enormously  the  immediate solutions to be more auto-efficient in our weak economy. Commonplace Investors and wholesalers invaded our economy  leaving counties, families in a devastated and struggling  economy. Counterfeiting, smugglers, infiltrated  our poor financial system  knowing that the cut of forces beyond the oversight control, monitor of this activity plays an important role and advantage to their increasingly  prosper, multi-million revenues.

 

“Washington – theft of American intellectual property is a serious crime, and U.S. Customs and Border Protection and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement announced today that their vigorous, ongoing efforts to protect America from the trade in counterfeit and pirated goods during fiscal year 20resulted in24, 792 seizures, a 24percent increase over 2010.”

 

“The growth of websites selling counterfeit goods directly to consumers is one reason why CBP and ICE have seen a significant increase in the number of seizures at mail and express courier facilities,” said Acting CBP Commissioner David V. Aguilar. “Although these websites may have low prices, what they do not tell consumers is that the true costs to our nation and consumers include lost jobs, stolen business profits. It threatens to our domestic security, and a serious risk of businesses and consumers.”

 

The way the Government and Marketers   confirmed the  great impact throughout the economy by showing a significant  reduction of purchasing.  Economist and analytics considered that this Depression was produced  by something beyond the stock and market crash which was experienced not only in North America; however,  in Europe and the rest of the World.

 

Conclusions:

Government needs to bring our jobs back from overseas. Instead of the reduced group of  Investors, economy advisors, motivate the population to get involved in solving as communities and as citizens the increasingly fluctuation of our economy.  This  relationship with our allies is not highly supervised. Consequently, due to the circumstances,  this economic growing bacteria spread  virtually also throughout the Internet.

 

References:

Authors:

Almunia, Miguel1

Bénétrix, Agustín2

Eichengreen, Barry1

Source:

Economic Policy; Apr2010, Vol. 25 Issue 62, p219-265, 47p, 5 Charts, 20 Graphs

 

 

Seidman, Laurence1

 

Challenge (05775132); Jan/Feb2011, Vol. 54 Issue 1, p32-53, 22p

 

http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/newsroom/news_releases/national/01092012.xml

O’Rourke, Kevin H.2

 

 

 

 

 

0

Our actual economy, learned from the devastating Great Depression that caused a Stock Market earthquake not only in Our Country; however, globally leaving a significant rate of poverty, Unemployment and lingering sequels of panic and terror.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cause and Effect

Luis Zeledon

American Intercontinental University

English Composition 1

ENGL106-1203B-220

Brian Henson

August 05, 2012

 

Abstract

Our actual economy, learned from the devastating Great Depression that caused a Stock Market earthquake not only in Our Country; however, globally  leaving a significant rate of poverty, Unemployment and  lingering sequels of panic and terror.

 

Body

Cause

The Cause of the Great Depression in 1929-1933 was the inexperience  of managing the prominent economic structure thoughtfully.

 

Unsatisfactory  plannings created  high concerns as well as a  boycott apportionment of the financial means and the  unqualified plan of leading economy  in the  right direction that could  compete worldwide without a consequential fluctuation that put option to families in privation and mutilated derelict the whole Country Economically.

 

 

“The Great Depression of the 1930s and the pronounced Credit Crisis of the 2000s had similar causes but elicited strikingly different policy responses. While it remains too early to assess the effectiveness of contemporary policy, it is possible to analyze  monetary and fiscal responses in the 1930s as a natural experiment or counter factual capable of shedding light on the impact of ongoing policies.”

 

Effects of the Great Depression

It still Lingers the sequels of such depression. In the Actual Economy is known as “Melting Economy” which had increased the percentage of unemployment due to the urgent need of cheap labor and companies moving out of the country.

 

United States does not seek  enormously  the  immediate solutions to be more auto-efficient in our weak economy. Commonplace Investors and wholesalers invaded our economy  leaving counties, families in a devastated and struggling  economy. Counterfeiting, smugglers, infiltrated  our poor financial system  knowing that the cut of forces beyond the oversight control, monitor of this activity plays an important role and advantage to their increasingly  prosper, multi-million revenues.

 

“Washington – theft of American intellectual property is a serious crime, and U.S. Customs and Border Protection and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement announced today that their vigorous, ongoing efforts to protect America from the trade in counterfeit and pirated goods during fiscal year 20resulted in24, 792 seizures, a 24percent increase over 2010.”

 

“The growth of websites selling counterfeit goods directly to consumers is one reason why CBP and ICE have seen a significant increase in the number of seizures at mail and express courier facilities,” said Acting CBP Commissioner David V. Aguilar. “Although these websites may have low prices, what they do not tell consumers is that the true costs to our nation and consumers include lost jobs, stolen business profits. It threatens to our domestic security, and a serious risk of businesses and consumers.”

 

The way the Government and Marketers   confirmed the  great impact throughout the economy by showing a significant  reduction of purchasing.  Economist and analytics considered that this Depression was produced  by something beyond the stock and market crash which was experienced not only in North America; however,  in Europe and the rest of the World.

 

Conclusions:

Government needs to bring our jobs back from overseas. Instead of the reduced group of  Investors, economy advisors, motivate the population to get involved in solving as communities and as citizens the increasingly fluctuation of our economy.  This  relationship with our allies is not highly supervised. Consequently, due to the circumstances,  this economic growing bacteria spread  virtually also throughout the Internet.

 

References:

Authors:

Almunia, Miguel1

Bénétrix, Agustín2

Eichengreen, Barry1

Source:

Economic Policy; Apr2010, Vol. 25 Issue 62, p219-265, 47p, 5 Charts, 20 Graphs

 

 

Seidman, Laurence1

 

Challenge (05775132); Jan/Feb2011, Vol. 54 Issue 1, p32-53, 22p

 

http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/newsroom/news_releases/national/01092012.xml

O’Rourke, Kevin H.2

 

 

 

 

0

How is IKEA profiting from global expansion? What is the essence of its strategy for creating value by expanding internationally?

Question 1: How is IKEA profiting from global expansion? What is the essence of its strategy for creating value by expanding internationally?

According to the case study “IKEA – The global retailer”, the IKEA is considered to be a successful furniture company in all over the world. The company sells products in 280 stores in 26 countries. That means it can make many profits from global expansion. Why can IKEA do that? It is because they have the low-cost strategy and the differentiation strategy. Firstly, in order to reduce price of their productions, IKEA has to lower their overall cost. Therefore, a very smart idea was created: leveraging the globalization sourcing materials from low-cost location suppliers such as China and selling to high-cost locations. In addition, to become more competitive, IKEA attach special importance to their product’s designs. They always make the most suitable products for their costumer. For example, when IKEA approached to US, they had changed quickly all of their European – style designs to the reasonable ones for American consumers.

IKEA is successful in expanding internationally. We can see that this action made more money for the company and also made it to become the world’s most successful global retainer. Therefore, the essence of its strategy is maximizing the value of the firm as well as maximizing its profits.