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Considering the albedo of various surfaces, how might temperatures differ between urban and rural areas? Which setting tends to be warmer on a given day and why? Also, are there any factors other than albedo that might affect the temperature differences between the two settings?

Considering the albedo of various surfaces, how might temperatures differ between urban and rural areas?  Which setting tends to be warmer on a given day and why?  Also, are there any factors other than albedo that might affect the temperature differences between the two settings?

 

 

On any given day the urban areas are hotter than that of the rural areas. Urban areas tend to be warmer than surrounding rural areas due to urban heat islands Albedo is a major factor in increase of the urban temperature. Albedo is “the fraction of the total solar radiation incident on a body that is reflected by it.” Surfaces that have high albedo values absorb less incident radiation. Albedo is “the fraction of the total solar radiation incident on a body that is reflected by it.” Surfaces that have high albedo values absorb less incident radiation. Albedo values of some materials found in the urban areas are shown in Figure. Even if two surfaces have a similar albedo, the incident energy does not always result in similar temperatures because the thermal capacity of those surfaces may differ. Concrete, which is used as construction material extensively all around the world, has many benefits. Concrete has an albedo value ranging from 0.1 to 0.35. These values are higher than those of some other materials, and it is also lighter in colour.

 

Factors that cause a higher temperature in urban areas:
– more buildings running furnaces or air conditioners which emit heat
– more areas paved with dark-coloured asphalt
– more dark-coloured flat roofs
– denser traffic with internal combustion engines
– less reflective snow cover in winter time

 

Other causes of a UHI are due to geometric effects. The tall buildings within many urban areas provide multiple surfaces for the reflection and absorption of sunlight, increasing the efficiency with which urban areas are heated. This is called the “urban canyon effect”. Another effect of buildings is the blocking of wind, which also inhibits cooling by convection. Waste heat from automobiles, air conditioning, industry, and other sources also contributes to the UHI. High levels of pollution in urban areas can also increase the UHI, as many forms of pollution change the radiative properties of the atmosphere.

 

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How Shopbot helped Amazon reach their objective?

How Shopbot helped Amazon reach their objective

Shopbots is a wide-known Internet service that allows a consumer to compare prices and products offered amongst competing retailers.  Amazon’s has created techniques that are mimics of the snapbots model.  Amazon made complete use of the technology by giving customers the capability to compare prices and shop before ever making a purchase.  Insights are provided to the consumer by allowing them to read manufactures and product reviews.  According to Levy (2007), “Shopping robots, or Shopbots, are thought to be a significant driver of these lower search costs.”  Price, warranty options, customer reviews, price, and vendor rating were all things utilized by Shopbots.  Amazon counteracted Shopbots by using the discovered technology to its benefit.  The way they did this was they offered their own individual Shopbots on their website as opposed to using a search engine.  Customers who visited their website could come directly and receive the shopbot service automatically inclusive with particular items they may have been looking at.

 

Reference:

Levy, S. (2007).  Cover story: technology.  The future of reading.  Newsweek.

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I feel that after reading the story here about the MMSD that the decisions that they made as far as setting up an offsite location strictly to make the food and then have it delivered was the way to go. This allows the school system to cater to all of their schools without disrupting the everyday activities that happen there. As well they chose to build a new building specifically for the purpose of the foodservice program. By building it now and spending the money up front, they are in turn saving money in the long run by not having to maintain what was being used before.

I feel that after reading the story here about the MMSD that the decisions that they made as far as setting up an offsite location strictly to make the food and then have it delivered was the way to go.  This allows the school system to cater to all of their schools without disrupting the everyday activities that happen there.  As well they chose to build a new building specifically for the purpose of the foodservice program.  By building it now and spending the money up front, they are in turn saving money in the long run by not having to maintain what was being used before.

When it comes to the future and these programs it is tough to say what his going to happen as far as government funding and political happenings.  No one can deny that we are in a tough economy and the government is hard up as where to cut money and where to spend it.  A lot of people will look at the situation and feel that parents should have to provide for their children and cut funding to the programs that offer free or reduced lunches.  Others need those programs to make sure their kids are eating a healthy meal every day at school.  There are some tough choices ahead for our elected officials, but I have a feeling for the most part that not all of this program is going to disappear, yes there will be some changes I am sure, but I think it will still be there.

The food service system laid out here is clearly an open system to me for a few simple reasons.  Looking at it from the outside one can see that the whole operation itself is a product of its environment and can be ended pretty much very quickly, by things outside of their own control.  Federal and state funding is the first thing that comes to mind for me here.  Without the money provided by these sources they would not be able to function alone.  Enrollment is another one, the less kids there are the less people they have the opportunity to feed, whether it is supplemental income to them from government funding or it is kids in families who choose to purchase their lunches from the program.  Other things to think about are materials to cook, time for preparation, and access to equipment and utilities.  As far as a new mission statement for the school system I would have to say that I am comfortable with the one that is set up and personally cannot think of a better one in my words.

With the system that the MMSD has put in place I would have to say that the biggest threat or danger they have to the food is the possibility of foodborne illnesses or the food spoiling.  When you are preparing and transporting food you have to be very careful in how it is handled the entire time.  Not only do you have to make sure that you are doing everything correctly as far as preparing the food in the initial kitchen, but then you have to make sure that it is transported correctly and then prepared again correctly.  There are a lot of areas in between these steps that can be a danger zone for the food being served to these kids.  Making sure that there is proper transportation for the food is one way to avoid this.  Having a refrigerated truck is vital to this.  The most important thing to remember though is that proper training of your employees is the best way to avoid anything from happening to the safety of your food.

It is especially important to be safe with this food since it is going to a susceptible group of people.  Kids are one group that we must worry about getting sick from things such as foodborne illnesses because they do not have fully developed immune systems.  What that means is something that may not make a thirty year old sick can make a twelve year old very sick.  Realizing this is going to do nothing but help the food industry no matter if it be the school system or a restaurant.  Falling into a HACCP plan is tough for any organization but should be done if you want to be safe and successful.  That being said, having to organize which recipe to put in first and which can wait is something to look at carefully.  I would have to say that entering the ones that meet the prerequisites is what I would do.  What I mean by that is making sure the easiest recipes are entered first, that way the transition is easier for everyone that is involved.

As far as assessing the current cleaning and sanitizing operations that are going in inside of the MMSD I would recommend to the newly appointed position to audit it.  Simply put I would go over the current procedures that are in place which seem to be working well and make sure of it.  Verifying the training of all the employees is one thing that I would personally do.  If dishes and such are not cleaned properly it can lead to illnesses not only to those that are consuming the food, but to those that are preparing the food.  After that I would check the maintenance logs of all the equipment that is in place.  With having only a few locations with devices it is important to make sure that everything is up and running correctly.  In doing these procedures you will be able to make sure things are up to par as far as the cleaning of dishes that happens regularly and so often.

Menu planning is something that many people in the foodservice industry take very seriously.  Many restaurants for example find that their menu is their livelihood; the school system is no exception to this.  To put it bluntly, if you are not offering what somebody wants to eat then you are not going to sell it.  The ideas set forth here are unique and quite good if I do say so myself.  What needs to be done though is careful and thought out planning.  Not only are you working with a system that is planned far out ahead of time but one in which they are working closely with local farmers.  Taking all of these considerations into account I would have to say that the key is in the planning stage.  In order to serve everyone what they want you need to have a good plan in place, you cannot do that if you do not have the supply.  The way to be successful here is to have good communication as well as being adjustable to what is going on with everyone involved.  It could very well change day to day and you might have to deal with the punches as far as that go.

Having not being able to access the correct chapter for unknown reasons to refresh myself, I would have to say that the biggest disadvantage to switching to a prime vendor is money.  When you are in business no matter what it is, it all boils down to money.  If you switch to a prime or primary vendor then you is limiting your options as far as price comparison goes.  What that means is you pretty much have to pay whatever price is being charged no matter what the market price is.  This has to deal with everything from the price of a noodle to the price of maintaining your equipment.  It might affect how much you are charged for your tune ups on ovens to the price of tomatoes used in your sauce, to how much you pay for aluminum containers used to serve your food.  Many places like to sign you into a contract as far as being your primary vendor, in order to avoid higher charges and such the way to avoid it is not sign a contract.  You may have to pay slightly higher prices sometimes, but it will allow you to shop around and find a lower price without being locked into an agreement that may or may not suit you.

The most important quality to find as far as any working business relationship is communication in my opinion.  This is no exception.  When you enter this deal you are agreeing to the set terms and need to abide by those.  So trust is clearly involved here as well.  Communication though as I said is most important, because without it then people get lost in the shuffle.  If you are running a slightly larger than mom and pop type of place, like the MMSD, you are dealing with many people, departments, and levels of management.  Therefore having clear communication is something that needs to be done to ensure that the proper people know all that there is to know.  Without doing this then you run the risk of making people mad because they may or may not have the correct information.

When you come into the type of situation such as the MMSD you are serving appetizing food to many people rather than serving five or six people at your house or even if it is being prepared for a customer at a full service establishment.  Having to adapt that recipe to be able to be flashing chilled a reheated later may require certain changing to the recipe itself.  We need to realize that not everything that is reheated is as tasty as it is when it is first cooked.  Adjusting ingredients or how something is prepared is then taken into account and might need to be changed depending on what it is exactly.  Some recipes may not be able to be made all together because it may not be appetizing at all after it is altered.  For the most part a lot of it may become trial and error in this type of environment.  By having students try recipes before they are served for everyone else you can anticipate whether or not it will be bought.  What I mean by this is that just like any other polling system these kids will tell you if you have a winner or not.  Just like sampling voters in a political vote, trying a new or improved recipe will tell you for the most part if it will sell, although just like polling results you have margins for error and need to prepare for that.  Either way I think that it is a good idea to involve the students as they tend to know what they like as well as what their peers like, which can turn into more money for the school district and their food program.

When you are serving in a school environment or most workplaces for that matter you have time limits.  Most schools that I have seen have a set time limit.  Now how long each student takes for that time is up for discussion.  When I was in elementary school we had a set amount of time and were escorted down to the cafeteria by our teacher.  In high school it was slightly different in the fact that we were able to make our way down there when we wanted to.  Now the issue that pops up with this is the fact that in some school cafeterias you have to make sure you can cater to those that take less time to eat then they do to socialize.  It stinks having to cater to people who do not take this into consideration, but it is a fact of life, especially when it comes to this field.  Therefore, you need to be prepared for this.  As well lunch schedules might vary depending on the size of school that you are serving in.  When you make food you need to anticipate this and be prepared.  By looking at the sustainability of the food and how long until it goes bad, is one way to work on it.  The other way is to anticipate these trends and make sure that only the amount that is to be sold is prepared and served.  Any left overs or extras would be hoped to be sold in undetermined numbers.  Just like a math equation this would be considered a variable.

Given the option of the two presented to me I would have to say that as far as waste goes I would choose to go the route of a waste audit.  What this does is measures the amount of each type of waste over a longer period of time, rather than weighing it all every day.  The reason why I picked this is the fact that in order to do it as a waste stream analysis you would have to spend a lot more money and time to see what is going on.  Just like a poll however the waste audit should give you a good idea as to how much and what kind of waste is being produced in each school at any given time.  As far as reducing any type of waste I would have to say that education is the key to this.  In order for people to realize what is going on they need to know all of the facts.  I personally am one that does not know all of them.  Therefore I would have to say that if you let people know about what is being wasted and what they personally can do then more people would try to help out where they can.  Basically you cannot help if you do not know.  Many people do not know, whether it be out of ignorance or just not knowing, just let them know what they can do and I am sure that they would be willing to help for the most part.  As far as a recycling program, I would have to say that education is the key here as well.  Many children do not know what they can do to help and will not know unless we teach them.  Having once again proper classes and teachings in place can help this.  As well after teaching, guiding them to the right places to put things will help.  This is not only the job of the teachers, but our cafeteria workers as well.  If a child knows where to put their item the closer we are to helping the planet and such.

All of this boils down to communication.  If you do not communicate; whether it is to your boss or a student as far as waste placement, then you will get nowhere.  We as humans need to realize that communication is a key to our lives and without it we can fail or succeed, we just need to choose to succeed.

 

 

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This paper explores the four components of business of the General Motors Corporation. The four components of business are business, profit, business environment, and economy. The definition of each component is as follows: A business is an organization of any size that provides goods and services to consumers to earn a profit; profit is a monetary reward for goods and services provided; business environment is the internal and external factors that affect business and the economy; and economy is financial structure of how the goods and services provided by businesses flow to society as a whole.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The General Motors Corporation and the

Four Components of Business

Herbert A. Agnew

Grantham University

Abstract

This paper explores the four components of business of the General Motors Corporation.  The four components of business are business, profit, business environment, and economy.  The definition of each component is as follows: A business is an organization of any size that provides goods and services to consumers to earn a profit; profit is a monetary reward for goods and services provided; business environment is the internal and external factors that affect business and the economy; and economy is financial structure of how the goods and services provided by businesses flow to society as a whole.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         The General Motors Company, also known as GM, is a United States-based automaker with its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan; a business that has been one of the leading carmakers for quite some time.  The company manufactures cars and trucks in 34 countries, and sells and services vehicles in some 140 countries.(Wikipedia) I am sure, like all businesses, the pursuit of General Motors is to always be willing to provide what goods and services America and its neighbors want; and at the same time make a profit.

By sales, GM ranked as the largest U.S. automaker and the worlds second-largest for 2008, having the third-highest 2008 global revenues among automakers on the Fortune Global 500. (Wikipedia) However, GM has fallen on hard times and has slipped from a previous ranking of 4, among the top ten companies of Fortune 500, and has fallen to a number 6 ranking.  The question now for General Motors is will it be able to engineer enough special consideration from unions and enough bailout money from the US government; to continue being a leading carmaker and not lose any more ground in its ranking? (CNN Money.com- Fortune 500 2009)  In consideration of this question and in a conceded state, on June 1, 2009, the GM Company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings, which were completed on July 10 of the same year, and it was thereafter reorganized once a new entity acquired the most valuable assets. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

When examining General Motors one can see what has seemingly been the problem it has incurred.  The proceeds for 2009 were estimated to be US$148.98 million, which is down -18.3 percent from 2007, and the profits were US -$30.86 million (CNN Money.com- Fortune 500 2009).  Did GM think that their products were second to none and not become proactive in trying to prevent such a downfall?

When speaking of profits, which are an integral part or component of business, it can be disheartening when they have taken a nose dive.  GM is now temporarily majority owned by the United States Treasury, the Canada Development Investment Corporation and the government of Ontario, with the U.S. government investing a total of US$57.6 billion under the Troubled Asset Relief Program (King, Neil, 2009).  However, during the Chapter 11 reorganization on July 10, 2009, a new entity, NGMCO Inc. purchased the ongoing operations and trademarks from General Motors Corporation.  The purchasing company, in turn, changed its name from NGMCO Inc. to General Motors Company, marking the emergence of a new operation from the “pre-packaged” Chapter 11 reorganization (NY Times-2009).

        At the end of 2008 and GM’s business environment, labor costs became an issue with GM as they began feeling economic strain; and they announced the elimination of lifetime health benefits for about 100,000 of its white collar retirees.  In 2009, GM employed approximately 244,500 people around the world.  However, as fate would have it, GM announced plans to trim its U.S. workforce by 20,000 employees as part of its reorganization by the end of 2009 because of economic conditions (Isidore, Chris-2009).

         Before this trimming process began the American workforce was about 91,000 strong and after the trimming process, they sit at approximately 68,500 people.  When speaking of trimming, not only was the personnel changed, the number of car brands dropped from 12 to 8; dealerships dropped from 5,900 to 5,000; ownership consisted of common shareholders, bondholders and secured creditors and changed, as mentioned earlier, new ownership to the US Treasury, the Canada Development Investment Corporation and the Government of Ontario, keeping the old GM bondholders, and also adding the United Auto Workers Union; US plants drop from 47 to 34; and the debt was eased from US$94.7 billion to US$17 billion.  The Federal Government characterized the GM restructuring as a shift toward a new leaner, greener GM.  President Obama has declared that the restructuring “will mark the end of an old GM, and the beginning of a new GM; a new GM that can produce the high-quality, safe, and fuel-efficient cars of tomorrow; that can lead America towards an energy independent future; and that is once more a symbol of America’s success (Consumer Reports-2009).

References

CNN Money.com – Fortune 500 2009: Top 10 1000 American Companies

King, Neil (October 30, 2009). Politicians Butt In at Bailed- Out GM

New York Times-2009

Consumer Reports- Cars Blog March 30, 2009 Obama: Chrysler, GM plans inadequate, demands further restructuring

Isidore, Chris (July 10, 2009) CNN Money.com.

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Human evolution has long been a discussion in much of society, from scientists, philosophers, theologians and those persons with strong Christian beliefs. What is it about human evolution that people feel they must prove or disprove? From the perspective of a devout Christian, one would document human evolution as being false. Based upon the concept of creation, Christian beliefs nullify the very idea of human evolution. At the off set of this discussion with a devout Christian would be the question: How can humans evolve from apes when God created man from the dust of the ground?

Is Human Evolution True or False?

     Human evolution has long been a discussion in much of society, from scientists, philosophers, theologians and those persons with strong Christian beliefs.  What is it about human evolution that people feel they must prove or disprove?  From the perspective of a devout Christian, one would document human evolution as being false.  Based upon the concept of creation, Christian beliefs nullify the very idea of human evolution.  At the off set of this discussion with a devout Christian would be the question:  How can humans evolve from apes when God created man from the dust of the ground?

The initial step in discussing this subject must be to define human evolution.  Based upon the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, human evolution is defined as “the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years”.  This definition seems equivalent to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, which suggests the process of biological evolution by natural selection.  “Natural selection is the process by which traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers.  It is a key mechanism ofevolution” (Wikipedia – 2010).

However, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is short lived by his own confessions of doubt.  Darwin’s confessions were collected in the book Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, edited by his son, Francis Darwin. Most of the letters that were written by Darwin to close friends and well-known scientists of his time are full of his confessions regarding his theory.  He had no misgivings about expressing his ignorance of the related subjects.  Up until now, although Darwin had strong doubts about his theory’s accuracy and his own level of scientific knowledge, with his own admission, today’s evolutionists still remain completely loyal and convinced by his theory (Harun Yahya International, 2010).

Humans are very different from animals, especially in the ability to use language and logic. Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science points out a number of contrasts between humans and apes (Sarfati).  Humans walk erect and therefore have distinctive knee and hip joints, backbone, toes, etc.  Humans also have an opposable thumb, which means it is capable of being placed against one or more of the remaining digits of a hand or foot; they make and use sophisticated tools as well as fire, and engage in diverse creativity.  Humans have a larger brain capacity than apes, smaller teeth set in parabolic or V-shaped, rather than U-shaped jaws, and they sometimes write, paint or make and play musical instruments.  Communication by language is another crucial difference along with the ability to do mathematics.  Other differences include the exercise of reason and free-will, rather than just instinct (Grigg-).

Christians, whenever confronted with the suggestion of humans originating from apes, would politely indicate that man was made in the image of God.  One scripture in particular, St. John 4:24 says, “God is a spirit: …”, therefore this ‘image’ cannot have anything to do with man’s physical appearance and or form.  Comparatively, humans have a spiritual dimension (Lubenow, 1992). This means they can communicate with God and receive answers to prayer.  As indicated in Romans 12:9, “let love be without dissimulation.  Abhor that which is evil, cleave to which that is good.”  This scripture helps us to understand that humans have moral consciousness, with the capacity to understand right from wrong.  ‘God is love’ (1 John 4:8), so humans can know the love of God in experiencing forgiveness for sin, which brings peace of mind, and a love for God and fellowship with Him on our part.

To date, there is not documented evidence that animals have souls, nor proven evidence of them having moral consciousness, or a concern for spiritual behavior.  Evidence of spiritual qualities cannot be seen in the fossil record; however, the spiritual dimension of man includes belief in life after death, which is often shown by evidence of religious burial ceremonies that most Christians practice (Grigg).

In conclusion, from the perspective of a devout Christian, one can further disprove human evolution because it does not account for the invisible things concerning the creation of human kind. According to Colossians 1:16 “For by him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible,…”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History – What does it mean to be human?

Retrieved from, http://humanorigins.si.edu/resources/intro-human-evolution

Darwin, C. 1859 “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life

Retrieved from, http://www.darwins-theory-of-evolution.com/

Harun Yahya International, 2010

Retrieved from, http://www.harunyahya.com/books/darwinism/confessions_evolutionists/confessions01.phpttp://www.harunyahya.com/books/darwinism/confessions_evolutionists/confessions01.php

Lubenow, M. 1992 Bones of Contention, Baker Books, Michigan, p. 168 Creation Ministries International in Australia/Canada/NZ/Singapore/South Africa/UK-Europe/USA

Retrieved from, http://creation.com/are-there-apemen-in-your-ancestry

Grigg, R., Creation Ministries International in Australia/Canada/NZ/Singapore/South Africa/UK-

Europe/USA

Retrieved from, http://creation.com/are-there-apemen-in-your-ancestry

Sarfati, J Ph.D., F.M. Humans: images of God or advanced apes? First published in Refuting

 Evolution, Chapter 6

Retrieved from, http://creation.com/refuting-evolution-chapter-6-humans-images-of-god-or-advanced-apes

Wikipedia, 2010 natural selection

Retrieved October 2, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_selection

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For years Amazon has been consider a leader in online retail sales. Recently though Amazon has ventured into technical and logistic services for other companies. Along with this transition have come many questions regarding the company’s direction, and whether or not it is a wise decision. This paper will discuss the components of Amazon’s database and their uses, potential database issues, and the relationship amongst data, information, and knowledge, and how Amazon addresses each.

RUNNING HEAD:  AMAZON CASE STUDY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brian Echtinaw

Amazon Case Study

September 23, 2010

XBIS219/Business Information Systems

Instructor:  Gregory Ellis

Introduction

            For years Amazon has been consider a leader in online retail sales. Recently though Amazon has ventured into technical and logistic services for other companies.  Along with this transition have come many questions regarding the company’s direction, and whether or not it is a wise decision. This paper will discuss the components of Amazon’s database and their uses, potential database issues, and the relationship amongst data, information, and knowledge, and how Amazon addresses each.

Heading in a New Direction

            Although Amazon has long been known for their online retail sales they are now adding to the services they offer. Amazon does not appear to be leaving behind their retail sales, but rather adding to the list of services they offer. For years this has been referred to as not putting all of your eggs in one basket, and with retail sales falling around the world Amazon is merely exploring other avenues of generating income.

Databases

            Amazon has decided that in order to generate more income they would open up their technical and logistical infrastructure to other companies. “Three of these services are the Simple Storage Service (S3), the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), and the Mechanical Turk” (Rainer, 2008, p. 26). S3 is a service that companies use to store their information and data on Amazon’s disk drives. EC2 is a service where companies rent the use of a server from Amazon. And Mechanical Turk is a service provided by human workers to find things such as finding inappropriate content and audio transcription.

Potential Issues

            It is possible and likely that there will be issues that will need to be addressed with the newly instituted systems, but there are not any services that do not come without the need to have the bugs worked out. Some data management issues that may be encountered are internet security, data management, and the outsourcing of services through the use of Turkers.

Information Systems

            Data, information, and knowledge are the three closely related steps in a well running information system. Amazon has put in place a three part system to address each of these issues for potential clients. The S3 and EC2 are used to gather and store data and information for a company, and the Mechanical Turk service address the knowledge part of the information system by organizing and processing the data and information into understandable material.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I feel that Amazon is venturing into a new and potentially profitable frontier while continuing to provide the retail service that they have come to be known for. Amazon also appears to have done the research needed to provide their customers with yet another quality product/service.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Rainer, K. (2008). Introduction to Information Systems. Retrieved from University ofPhoenix eBook Collection database.

 

 

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Infants have the ability to learn from the time they are born. Their hearing matches that of an adult after birth and they have an attention span which is easily drawn to any stimulation. They have classification skills which allow them to sort and store things in different places such as toys in one drawer and clothes in another. After the first year, children improve greatly on their visual compression as infants learn to explore their surroundings.

University of Phoenix
Stages of Cognitive Development
AED 202

 

 

Kaitlyn Calhoun

3/21/2012

 

 

 

Infancy:  Ages Birth- 2 years of age

Infants have the ability to learn from the time they are born. Their hearing matches that of an adult after birth and they have an attention span which is easily drawn to any stimulation. They have classification skills which allow them to sort and store things in different places such as toys in one drawer and clothes in another. After the first year, children improve greatly on their visual compression as infants learn to explore their surroundings.

Early Childhood Ages:  2 – 6 years of age

At this stage, children have a very short attention span. There are some children who understand the use of symbols, letters, and numbers at this stage, though they will have a limited knowledge which can be improved as they experience new things based on their culture, background, and environment.

Middle Childhood:  Ages 6-10

At this stage, the ability to attend to important stimulation is increased while children learn to block out or ignore stimulation which is not relevant. Their basic skills become automated at this stage while their knowledge base continues to increase thanks to exposure to other children, adults, as well as different environments. At this level, many children improve in their academic studies and their memory.

Early Adolescence:  Ages 10-14 years of age

At this stage children are sometimes able to do a single task for at least an hour or more. Their basic skills in math, spelling, reading, writing, as well as word identification become automated contributing to a large growth in their academic knowledge in all areas of school.  Their growing experience continues to expand their knowledge base as well.

Late Adolescence:  Ages 14-18 years of age

At this stage, many children are able to spend many hours doing a single task, even in one night. Their knowledge increases tremendously in their own domain as well as integrated domains while as a high school student they are able to lead their classes in certain areas in which they excel.

 

 

 

 

 

Refences

Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents. (2004). (p. 18).

Prentice Hall.

 

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The problems or situations that Kava is facing are many for the residents and government to face. The question for Morales Disaster Relief Non-Profit Organization is how to best approach each and every situation while relieving some of the stress from the situation or to come up with the best answer for that situation or problem. As a representative of the company I work for, I will be brainstorming with my supervisor and mentor, Alex, on prioritizing the disasters and problems that have plagued Kava and coming up with solutions.

Running head: STRATEGIES IN DECISION MAKING FOR KAVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strategies in Decision Making for Kava

Kim Brown

University of Phoenix

Critical Thinking: Strategies in Decision Making

MGT.350

Paul Sienkiewicz

Mar 06, 2011

 

 

Strategies in Decision Making for Kava

The problems or situations that Kava is facing are many for the residents and government to face. The question for Morales Disaster Relief Non-Profit Organization is how to best approach each and every situation while relieving some of the stress from the situation or to come up with the best answer for that situation or problem. As a representative of the company I work for, I will be brainstorming with my supervisor and mentor, Alex, on prioritizing the disasters and problems that have plagued Kava and coming up with solutions.

The first solution that the Morales Disaster Relief Non-Profit Organization wants to bring to Kava is a portable water treatment system with ceramic filters that filter 5,000 to 50,000 liters per cartridge, removing pathogens down to the 0.2–0.3 micrometer range. Using this kind of filter removes most bacteria and protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. In order to remove the pathogens that range smaller than the 0.2–0.3 micrometer range ultraviolet light and chemical disinfectants will be used as a second phase of filtering the water and removing pathogens like strands of thread-like Leptospira bacteria that can cause leptospirosis (Aqua Sun International; 2010). Once the water is filtered of pathogens and can be used for drinking, cooking, and farming again, Morales Disaster Relief Non-Profit Organization will begin construction of a water treatment plant that would be more a more stable resource for cities and towns of the island, while still using mounted treatment center stations for the rural and village areas.

The second phase that Morales Disaster Relief Non-Profit Organization wants to bring to Kava is starting construction on natural disaster proof homes that are made of epoxy-coated steel and fiber-reinforced concrete construction that are raised on concrete pilings with lead-rubber isolation bearings that can withstand any natural disaster including a category 5 hurricane (Natural Disaster Proof Homes; 2011). These constructed building to be used as homes, schools, water treatment plants, hospitals, accommodations for tourist to the island, and government buildings will be able to withstand the tidal waves, hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, floods, and earthquakes that keep causing chaos on the island. Once these two phases are began and finished. Then the economy of Kava can begin to prosper with the clean water for planting coffee, cocoa, banana trees, sugar cane, and fishing nurseries just to name some of the positive effects. As the island prospers with it’s trading of resources. Tourism will begin to increase as safer buildings that have been constructed are in place as well as ensuring high levels of stability, safety, and security for the island residents and tourist from any kind of terrorist activities. This will be done with proper training of a military type task force and surveillance equipment put into place, including data monitoring systems. Peace treaties will also be established with neighboring countries to help ensure the reduction if not the elimination of the threat of terrorist attacks on essential services such as water supplies, energy, transport and communications as well as on production systems like farms, villages, food production facilities or storage areas of food.

The solutions that are being set into place do not help with problems being faced by Kava and its people than it can be devastating, especially if neighboring countries do not wish to participate in a safer environment for Kava as well as for them in a union of countries protecting one another from any and all threats. The benefits that can be reaped and become rewarding for Kava as well as neighboring countries are phenomenal on the basis that what the Morales Disaster Relief Non-Profit Organization is bringing to the table for Kava can be done at the same time for Kava’s neighboring countries in order to help a strong trading route within the countries as well as any other country that would see Kava and its neighbors as a strong potential trade route. Kava and other neighboring countries would not lose their youth to migrations to other regions that already have a more stabilized economy in place.

 

Reference

Aqua Sun International; 2010; Portable Water Purification Systems; retrieved on March 6, 2011, from http://www.aqua.sun.intl.com/portable-water-purification-systems

Natural Disaster Proof Homes; 2011; Earthquake Homes; retrieved on March 6, 2011 from http://hurricaneproof.net/earthquake_damage.htm

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The state of Confusion enacted a statute requiring all trucks and towing trailers that use its highways to use a B-type truck hitch. This hitch is manufactured by only one manufacturer in Confusion. The result of this statute is that any trucker who wants to drive through Confusion must stop and have the new hitch installed, or drive around Confusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Confusion Paper

July 11, 2011

Tom Kohler

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The state of Confusion enacted a statute requiring all trucks and towing trailers that use its highways to use a B-type truck hitch. This hitch is manufactured by only one manufacturer in Confusion. The result of this statute is that any trucker who wants to drive through Confusion must stop and have the new hitch installed, or drive around Confusion. The federal government has not made any attempt to regulate the truck hitches used on the nation’s highways. Tanya Trucker, who owns a trucking company in the state of Denial, is not happy about the additional expense this statute imposes on her business. She intends to file suit against Confusion to overturn the statute. This paper will define and outline the steps that will place in Tanya’s quest to overturn the statute.

The State of Confusion has breached the Commerce clause enclosed in the United States Constitution. In the United States Constitution the 10th Amendment grants Congress the authority to standardize interstate trade, further any commerce conducted with other states and foreign countries also can be regulated by Congress. If the state of Confusion were to be appealed and other States were face with a similar dilemma the case could be reviewed by the United States Supreme Court. Based on the Commerce Clause in the United States Constitution the use of federal laws can be enacted when dealing with non-interstate commerce.

The Dormant Commerce clause in United States Constitution outlines that Congress has authority of interstate trade and shall not differentiate between interstate commerce nor can Congress unjustifiably encumber interstate commerce.

The United States Constitution outlines that no preference shall be granted by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to ports of one state over those of another, also outlined is no Vessel departing or entering another state shall be faced with fines. Additionally any state laws affecting interstate trade must be legitimately related to state concerns and the states interests have to be considered.

The state of Confusion has placed the burden on trucks because of the mandated installation of the B-type truck hitch. This can negatively affect the continuity of interstate commerce. States have to remain unbiased when enacting statutes. Requiring trucks to use a specific type of hitch manufactured in a specific state is placing an unrealistic and unfair burden on the truck owner. Because of this the Dormant Commerce Clause will support the plaintiff’s case.

Due process will be used to determine the statutes validity. Due process is a provision in the United States Constitution that safe guards individuals constitutional rights such as Tanya Trucker. Due process allows individual rights to be protected and valued by governmental agencies. A violation of Due process can result in that agency being in violation of Rule of Law.

Because the B-type truck hitch is exclusively available from a single manufacture located in the State of Confusion Tanya Trucker will likely prevail in her suit. This is because drivers that are located out of the state are unable to install the hitch prior to conducting business and commerce trade in the State of Confusion. This creates a continuing and excessive and unwarranted hardship on the drivers. By allowing this to take place there is a strong likelihood of a monopoly being formed, the monopoly will prevent interstate commerce with the State of Confusion and will create a monopoly for the manufacture of the B-type hitch. Because this case falls into the jurisdiction of the Federal government Tanya has a strong probability of wining this case. Federal law and regulations require that all individuals and vehicles/equipment meet federal safety and product standards. Based on evidence and law the State of Confusion is deemed to be un-constructional. The State of Confusion failed to articulate any clear, concise, or valid reason for requiring the B-type hitch. Due to the amount of interstate commerce there will be many other drivers that will join forces with Tanya resulting in a victory for Tanya and her colleagues.

The first stage in a Civil Lawsuit is the demand letter. This is a private correspondence that summarizes the victim’s damages and legal claims. The purpose of this private correspondence is to make notice of the intentions to file a lawsuit unless a private settlement can be reached. It is possible that a settlement or resolution is achieved as a result of this correspondence. The second step is a complaint. The compliant is filed if a resolution is not agreed upon following the demand letter. The complaint describes what the victim’s legal claim against the defendant is. Depending on the type of case the compliant is filled in the Federal or State courts. Thirdly are depositions. A deposition is intended to reveal any pertinent information from any parties involved including the victim and the defendant. In this stage attorneys can and often do question the victim and defendant in person. This questioning is typically done with a court recorder, all parties are sworn in, attorneys are present, and there is no judge attending. Step four is the discovery or interrogatory stage. In this stage attorneys from the victim and defendant generally submit questions for the parties involved. In addition to these questions any applicable documentation is requested. Next is the disposition of the lawsuit. There are quite a few possible outcomes in this stage. Reaching a settlement is common in most cases. This occurs when there is an agreement reached between the victim and the defendant which results in financial compensation. A settlement may also include other stipulations that range from an apology to increased lighting or better warning devices. In order for a settlement to occur all parties have to be present and in agreement. Alternative dispute resolution is another step the settlement process. This resolution is completed in mediation where a mediator is present and will attempt to arrive at a resolution. Mediator’s recommendations are just that, they are recommendations and do not have to be followed. Arbitration occurs when all parties involved agree upon the use of a mediator. This will occur outside of the court and both parties agree to resolve case based on the arbitrators findings. A lawsuit can be ended because of a motion. The dismissal of a case can be based on a motion to dismiss due to inadequate evidence, time parameters, or moving to a high court to name a few. If the court rules to dismiss, both parties can appeal the courts decision in a higher court. If a resolution is not achieved and the case is not dismissed there will be trial. The trail will be either a jury trial or the judge will hear the case. If the trail is a jury trial the jury will hear both sides of all parties involved and reach a guilty o not guilty verdict, once this done the jury will decide on the victim’s financial reimbursement. The final step is the appellate review. For an appellate review to occur there must be a legal error that occurred in the trial. An appellate review can not be conducted based on either side’s disagreement of the final verdict.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The Legal Environment of Business and Online Commerce (6th ed.).

FindLawforlegalprofessionals. (2011). The U.S. Legal System. Retrieved from http://httpFindLawforlegalprofessionals.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Montefiore a unionized health care organization established in 1884 The Bronx by leaders in the Jewish community. They recognized the urgency for a healthcare facility to house and care for patient with diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, and chronic illness. The facility was named after Sir Moses Montefiore, a famed humanitarian. Montefiore serves as one of the largest healthcare systems in the United States of America. They serve two million individuals from the South Bronx to the North Bronx and nearby Westchester County as well as many across the nation and throughout the world.

 

 

 

 

Effects of the Unionized Organizations


Effects of the Unionized Organizations

Montefiore a unionized health care organization established in 1884 The Bronx by leaders in the Jewish community. They recognized the urgency for a healthcare facility to house and care for patient with diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, and chronic illness. The facility was named after Sir Moses Montefiore, a famed humanitarian.  Montefiore serves as one of the largest healthcare systems in the United States of America. They serve two million individuals from the South Bronx to the North Bronx and nearby Westchester County as well as  many across the nation and throughout the world.  As of today the Montefiore has three main hospitals ,which   is The Moses, Weiler (Albert Einstein) and Montefiore North previously known as Our Lady of Mercy Hospital. They have more 100 ambulatory urgency care sites and whose physicians not only treat but also cure countless diseases and condition. The Montefiore Medical Center (2011) http://www.montefiore.org/whoweare/history   As of the current date and time Montefiore employees over 17,000 people, which majority populated are union employees.

It was in 1959 that 1199 SEIU (Service Employees International Union) led a movement to organize New Yorkhospital employees to attain combined bargaining rights. This campaign was goaled to improve both health care and wages for the employees. Montefiore Medical Center, who had already had been existences for ¾ quarters of a century, boldly encouraged the efforts of 1199 endeavors and partners with this union.   This union had already been established for 27 years with 5000 members though the New York metro area.  Together they joined in unity with Montefiore to participate in a strong consideration for the concerns and recognition of their employees to properly respect and care for them.  Montefiore Medical Center. http://www.montefiore.org/newsreleases/2009/september/1199SEIU/

 

Montefiore benefits were greater far more than less when they opted to join the 1199 SEIU in 1959.  This partnership with 1199 gave them the opportunity to give effective health care along with effective employees.   Connecting with 1199 brought a sense family values and organized environment to for patience and workers.    This gave management an opportunity to decide compensation rates based on labor presentation or worth.  Not to be told that all employees will be paid the same amount in despite of   how durable they do or do not toil.  It also extends additional honesty open the walls of communication that doesn’t exist in a non-union environment. Hoping that leaders would value the communication efforts much better benefit packages in union shops in these areas of New York.  According the Wagner Act, or Nation Labor Relations Act, of 1935 the legal process stated the right of all personnel to engage in union behavior, are to organize, and to bargain collectively without intrusion or intimidation from administration.(McGraw-Irwin, 2010).

             According to University of Hawai‘i – West O‘ahuCenter for Labor Education & Research (   © All text copyright 2011), “[An employer is required to bargain in “ good faith” with the qualified labor or union organization representing the employee]”  The collective bargaining can be in three phases (1) the contractual obligation to meet and discuss (2) the contractual obligation to bargain in “good faith” (3) the responsibility to bring certain subjects to the table.   Administration is not required to have the same opinion to any meticulous contract stipulation, not matter how logical or fair it appears to the union.

Union bargaining has effects of fair demonstration by representing everyone in the bargaining unit evenly, all situations are handled  similar in cases of consistently, study each grievance and problem are carefully scanned by the keeping in black and white records, observing time limits, and maintaining an internal process of appeal. It keeps conflict resolutions organized.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

  1. Aon Hewitt.  [Move the period to follow the citation] (© 2010 Hewitt Associates LLC). Aon Hewitt. Retrieved from http://www2.hewittassociates.com/Intl/NA/enUS/AboutHewitt/OurClients/CaseStudyDetail.aspx?cid=5148
  2. McGraw-Irwin (2010). Managing Human Resources. Retrieved from McGraw-Irwin, HRM/531 website.
  3. MontefioreMedicalCenter (2011). Montefiore Medical Center. Retrieved from http://www.montefiore.org/newsreleases/2009/september/1199SEIU/
  4. Montefiore Medical Center   (2011). Montefiore Medical Center. Retrieved from http://www.montefiore.org/whoweare/history
  5. Universityof Hawai‘i – West O‘ahuCenter for Labor Education & Research (© All text copyright 2011). Collective Bargaining FAQs. Retrieved from http://clear.uhwo.hawaii.edu/CB-FAQ