Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation Climate is referred to as the average weather conditions from an area over many years.

Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation


Climate is referred to as the average weather conditions from an area over many years.


Global climate change refers to the world’s average climate change. The world’s climate is


constantly changing for the worse because of certain human activities that ruin the world’s


natural balance. When scientists try to explain global climate change, they usually refer to the


pattern of changes that happens over many years. The increasing average temperature of the


Earth is one of the most important topics that a scientist reviews (Wexant, 1999).


Many years ago people started burning huge amounts of natural gas, coal, and oil so their


factories, vehicles, and homes could be powered. Still today many of people in the world receive


their energy needs from these fossil fuels. When fossil fuels are burned, they release a heattrapping gas (carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. This alone is one of the main reasons that


cause the planet’s climate to constantly change. Carbon dioxide and other different gasses of the


Earth like methane and nitrous oxide are called greenhouse gases (which exist naturally in


Earth’s atmosphere), and they warm the Earth so that plants can grow and animals thrive.


Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have increased by 35% over the pre-industrial


levels. Also the increase of burning fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, oil, methane, and the


nitrous oxide emissions from industry and agriculture as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)


contribute to the greenhouse effect. The production of too much carbon dioxide in the air today


is said to be because more fossil fuels are burned (Liverman, 2009). Because of this, the United


Nations (UN) started trying to understand how this activity (and others) can trigger climate


change and global warming costs.


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The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has the project of working on the


effect of fossil fuels and other possible cost of global warming. This eventually ended with the


Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).


Since 2004, industrialized nations were at fault for a little over half of the world’s global carbon


emission. Most of the future growths of carbon emissions are expected to be caused by rapidly


expanding developing areas such as India and China. Even though developing countries are


protected to grow faster carbon emissions, future per-capital emissions will be much higher in


industrialized countries.


Developing nations believe that they should not be demanded to limit emissions where


they are located while industrialized countries are allowed to emit much more on a per-capita


basis. Some of the effects of combating global climate change involves: (1) loss of forest and


land area, (2) loss of species, (3) an interruption of water supplies to agriculture and cities, and


(4) an increase in the cost of air conditioning. Some of the benefits include: (1) lower heating


costs, and (2) an increase in agricultural production while in cooler climates. One known


approach to finding economic analysis of climate change is through cost/benefit analysis.


The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on in Kyoto, Japan on December 11, 1997, and was not


entered into force until February 16, 2005. The likely benefits from the Kyoto Protocol are


gained by the avoided damages that occur from climate change. The Kyoto Protocol’s job is to


help the world control the gasses that is produced in the atmosphere, especially the gasses that


can cause global warming like sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous


oxide (Guff, 2008). The most recent assessment of the Kyoto Protocol reported that cost


estimates were found to be way lower than the costs estimated in the previous IPCC Third


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Assessment Report (Weyant, 1999). Without assistance from the United States and access to full


use of the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanism, the cost was less than 0.05% (which was


compared to cost estimates of 0.1-1.1%).


The associated cost of the technology is not a small amount and each country is expected


to buy one to ensure that everything is being taken care of. In the end, companies that will not


pass the emission testing may face lawsuits or may even be forced to either close down or meet


the standards set by the Kyoto Protocol. The policy that addresses global climate change that is


recommend is the National Leadership on Climate Change. The reason for this federal policy is


that the federal government shows a superior leading role in establishing programs, national


standards, funding prioritization, and policies that alleviates greenhouse gas emissions and


prepares people and communities to adapt to global climate change.


The federal government can establish baseline policies and regulations, produce research,


and provide funding to many topics that relate to global climate change (such as energy policy


and motor-vehicle fuel efficiency standards). Action from the federal government establishes


larger, more predictable markets for emission reduction systems. Providing for climate change


actions that takes place at a federal level will result in more consistent approach globally and


also greater possibilities for successfully reaching goals for reducing emission (Vogt, 2003).

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