Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation
Climate is referred to as the average weather conditions from an area over many years.
Global climate change refers to the world’s average climate change. The world’s climate is
constantly changing for the worse because of certain human activities that ruin the world’s
natural balance. When scientists try to explain global climate change, they usually refer to the
pattern of changes that happens over many years. The increasing average temperature of the
Earth is one of the most important topics that a scientist reviews (Wexant, 1999).
Many years ago people started burning huge amounts of natural gas, coal, and oil so their
factories, vehicles, and homes could be powered. Still today many of people in the world receive
their energy needs from these fossil fuels. When fossil fuels are burned, they release a heattrapping gas (carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. This alone is one of the main reasons that
cause the planet’s climate to constantly change. Carbon dioxide and other different gasses of the
Earth like methane and nitrous oxide are called greenhouse gases (which exist naturally in
Earth’s atmosphere), and they warm the Earth so that plants can grow and animals thrive.
Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have increased by 35% over the pre-industrial
levels. Also the increase of burning fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, oil, methane, and the
nitrous oxide emissions from industry and agriculture as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
contribute to the greenhouse effect. The production of too much carbon dioxide in the air today
is said to be because more fossil fuels are burned (Liverman, 2009). Because of this, the United
Nations (UN) started trying to understand how this activity (and others) can trigger climate
change and global warming costs.
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The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has the project of working on the
effect of fossil fuels and other possible cost of global warming. This eventually ended with the
Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Since 2004, industrialized nations were at fault for a little over half of the world’s global carbon
emission. Most of the future growths of carbon emissions are expected to be caused by rapidly
expanding developing areas such as India and China. Even though developing countries are
protected to grow faster carbon emissions, future per-capital emissions will be much higher in
Developing nations believe that they should not be demanded to limit emissions where
they are located while industrialized countries are allowed to emit much more on a per-capita
basis. Some of the effects of combating global climate change involves: (1) loss of forest and
land area, (2) loss of species, (3) an interruption of water supplies to agriculture and cities, and
(4) an increase in the cost of air conditioning. Some of the benefits include: (1) lower heating
costs, and (2) an increase in agricultural production while in cooler climates. One known
approach to finding economic analysis of climate change is through cost/benefit analysis.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on in Kyoto, Japan on December 11, 1997, and was not
entered into force until February 16, 2005. The likely benefits from the Kyoto Protocol are
gained by the avoided damages that occur from climate change. The Kyoto Protocol’s job is to
help the world control the gasses that is produced in the atmosphere, especially the gasses that
can cause global warming like sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous
oxide (Guff, 2008). The most recent assessment of the Kyoto Protocol reported that cost
estimates were found to be way lower than the costs estimated in the previous IPCC Third
Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation 4
Assessment Report (Weyant, 1999). Without assistance from the United States and access to full
use of the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanism, the cost was less than 0.05% (which was
compared to cost estimates of 0.1-1.1%).
The associated cost of the technology is not a small amount and each country is expected
to buy one to ensure that everything is being taken care of. In the end, companies that will not
pass the emission testing may face lawsuits or may even be forced to either close down or meet
the standards set by the Kyoto Protocol. The policy that addresses global climate change that is
recommend is the National Leadership on Climate Change. The reason for this federal policy is
that the federal government shows a superior leading role in establishing programs, national
standards, funding prioritization, and policies that alleviates greenhouse gas emissions and
prepares people and communities to adapt to global climate change.
The federal government can establish baseline policies and regulations, produce research,
and provide funding to many topics that relate to global climate change (such as energy policy
and motor-vehicle fuel efficiency standards). Action from the federal government establishes
larger, more predictable markets for emission reduction systems. Providing for climate change
actions that takes place at a federal level will result in more consistent approach globally and
also greater possibilities for successfully reaching goals for reducing emission (Vogt, 2003).