Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet
Part I: Origins of Psychology
Within the discipline of psychology, there are several perspectives used to describe, predict, and explain human behavior. The seven major perspectives in modern psychology are psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanist, cognitive, neuroscientific/biopsychological, evolutionary, and sociocultural. Describe the seven major psychological perspectives using two to three sentences each. Select one major figure associated with one of the seven major perspectives and describe his or her work in two to three sentences. Type your response in the space below.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician who pioneered the study of the unconscious mind. Freud developed the methods of the free association and interpretation of dreams that are the basic techniques of psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalytic Perspective suggests that there is a part of the mind that includes the id, superego, and the ego. To which the id demands pleasure and satisfaction, the ego deals with the demands from the id and superego, and the superego is the ethical element which is the conscience and may produce feelings of guilt.
The Behaviorism perspective is where any physical action is a behavior which everything that is living does such as acting, thinking, and feeling. Arthur W. Staats’ merges psychological concepts like personality within a behavioral model like Basic Behavioral Repertoires.
Humanistic Perspective is the positive image of what it means to be a human being. The ones who theorize the humanistic perspective focus mostly on methods that allow fulfillment of potential.
Cognitive behavior is an extra method when comprehending the effects of learning on the initiation of behavior. A cognitive tactic to motivation stresses that the likelihood of an incidence of behavior depends upon individuals’ observation of the value of a goal as well as other hopes of reaching it.
Bio psychological Perspective is the psychological school of thought based on the premise that physiological influences and factors are the most important when developing, determining, and causing behavior and mental processes. The physiological perspective is the NATURE.
Evolutionary psychology is the psychological traits such as memory, perceptions, and language. Things such as the fact that a human can inherit the capacities for acquiring language, while inheriting no capacity specifically for reading or writing.
Sociocultural perspective is that the behavior and mental methods are shaped not only by past experiences but also by the unconscious mind. Sociocultural perspective also shows that behavior and mental processes are also impacted by social or cultural context.
Part II: Research Methods
Describe research methods used in psychology by completing the following table. After completing the table, select two of the research methods and compare and contrast them in your own words. Your response must be at least 75 words.
Provide an example
|Experimental||Identify cause and effect||Allows researchers to have precise control over variables and to identify cause and effect
|Ethical concerns, practical limitations, artificiality of lab conditions, uncontrolled variables may confound results, researcher and participant biases
|An example of this is when my husband was depressed he had many things that were wrong with him due to his traumatic experience. They tested him out on many different medications before finally determining what fixed his problem.|
|Descriptive||Observe, collect, and record data||Minimizes artificiality, easier to collect data, allows description of behavior and mental processes as they occur
|Little or no control over variables, researcher and participant biases, cannot explain cause and effect
|An example of this is when an individual is observed in order to collect data and record it to determine reactions for the future to refer to.|
|Correlational||Identify relationships and assess how well one variable predicts another||Helps clarify relationships between variables that cannot be examined by other methods and allows prediction
|Researchers cannot identify cause and effect
|An example of this is the cliques in highschool. When one person from a clique does something that person will predict how the rest will follow.|
|Biological||Identify contributing biological factors||Shares many or all of the advantages of experimental, descriptive, and correlational research
|Shares many or all of the disadvantages of experimental, descriptive, and correlational research
|Things such as MRI’s, PET scans or dissections allow one to see the different contributing biological factors.|
Descriptive methods and correlational methods are the ones that I choose to compare and contrast. Descriptive methods are used to observe, collect and record data. Most of the time these methods are used in psychology to observe patients who have things like depression and be able to find out the different side effects of the illness. This will allow in the future for psychologists to refer back to that data that has been recorded and predict different things that may happen such as suicidal thoughts, weight loss, etc. Correlation methods are used to identify relationships and assess how well one variable predicts another. IN the same scenario of depression, one could identify the relationships that a depressed person may have with another person or other objects and the attachment that they have to such people or things. Once these things have been determined they can assess how these objects influence the illness.
Part III: The Brain
Studying the functions and elements of the brain is essential to understanding human behavior. Watch the CyberPsych animation, The Brain, to research the brain in more depth. To access the animation:
- Open WileyPlus by clicking on the rEsource link
- Click on Read, Study, Practice
- Select Chapter Two
- Go to CyberPsych
- Click on Animation: The Brain
After watching the animation, use the animation and your text to answer the following questions:
- Why do psychologists study twins? Why do psychologists study children who have been adopted? What can be learned from these types of studies?
Psychologists study twins because they have a uniquely high proportion of shared twins. Identical twins share 100 percent of their genes and fraternal twins share about 50 percent of their genes (just as would any other pair of siblings). Studying families with children who have been adopted provide valuable information for researchers because if adopted children are more like their biological family in some trait then genetic factors had the greater influence. These types of studies are done in order to determine what genetics play a role in because if an adopted child resembles their adopted family then environmental factors may predominate.
- What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones? How do they influence the brain and behavior?
Neurotransmitters carry out many functions such as transferring messages throughout structures of the brains nerve cells and are instrumental in emotional behavior.
The pituitary gland is usually considered the master endocrine gland because it releases hormones that activate the other endocrine glands. The hypothalamus influences the pituitary through direct neural connections and by releasing its own hormones into the blood supply of the pituitary.
- What is neuroplasticity?
Neuroplasticity is the brains ability to reorganize and change its structure and function through the life span